Fundamental research and development
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SUPFDV001 Update on Nitrogen Infusion Sample R&D at DESY 57
 
  • C. Bate, A. Dangwal Pandey, A. Ermakov, B. Foster, T.F. Keller, D. Reschke, J. Schaffran, S. Sievers, H. Weise, M. Wenskat
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • B. Foster
    Oxford University, Physics Department, Oxford, Oxon, United Kingdom
  • W. Hillert, M. Wenskat
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Many accelerator projects such as the European XFEL cw upgrade or the ILC, would benefit from cavities with reduced surface resistance (high Q-values) while maintaining a high accelerating gradient. A possible way to meet the requirements is the so-called nitrogen-infusion procedure on Niobium cavities. However, a fundamental understanding and a theoretical model of this method are still missing. The approach shown here is based on R\&D using small samples, with the goal of identifying all key parameters of the process and establishing a stable, reproducible recipe. To understand the underlying processes of the surface evolution that give improved cavity performance, advanced surface-analysis techniques (e.g. SEM/EDX, TEM, XPS, TOF-SIMS) are utilized and several kinds of samples are analyzed. Furthermore, parameters such as RRR and the surface critical magnetic field denoted as Hc3 have been investigated. For this purpose, a small furnace dedicated to sample treatment was set up to change and explore the parameter space of the infusion recipe. Results of these analyses and their implications for the R\&D on cavities are presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPFDV001  
About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 03 January 2022 — Issue date; ※ 27 April 2022  
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SUPFDV002 Ab Initio Theory of the Impact of Grain Boundaries on the Superconducting Properties of Nb3Sn 62
 
  • M.M. Kelley, T. Arias, N. Sitaraman
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation under award PHY-1549132, the Center for Bright Beams.
For over 50 years experiments have repeatedly demonstrated that the superconducting performance of Nb3Sn is profoundly sensitive to grain boundaries (GBs), but only recently has a microscopic theory emerged. Here we present the first comprehensive, ab initio study of GBs in Nb3Sn*. While most conventional superconductors, such as Nb, are not significantly impacted by GBs, Nb3Sn is much more sensitive to defects and disorder owing to its short coherence length of ~3 nm. Indeed, experiments suggest a link between GB stoichiometry and the performance of Nb3Sn superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, and mesoscopic simulations point to GBs as a candidate mechanism that lowers the vortex-entry field in Nb3Sn SRF cavities. Our density-functional theory (DFT) calculations on tilt and twist GBs provide direct insight into antisite defect formation near GBs and how local electronic properties are impacted by clean GBs and by GBs with added point defects. Ultimately, we will show how GB composition affects the local Tc around GBs in Nb3Sn to elucidate recent SRF experiments and provide insight on promising modifications to the growth procedure of Nb3Sn to optimize its SRF performance.
[*] Michelle M Kelley et al 2021 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 34 015015
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPFDV002  
About • Received ※ 01 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 02 December 2021 — Issue date; ※ 09 April 2022  
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SUPFDV003 Effect of Mean Free Path on Nonlinear Losses of Trapped Vortices Driven by a RF Field Field 67
 
  • M.R.P. Walive Pathiranage, A.V. Gurevich
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by NSF under Grants PHY 100614-010 and PHY 1734075, and by DOE under Grant DE-SC 100387-020.
We report extensive numerical simulations on nonlinear dynamics of a trapped elastic vortex under rf field, and its dependence on electron mean free path li. Our calculations of the field-dependent residual surface resistance Ri(H) take into account the vortex line tension, the linear Bardeen-Stephen viscous drag and random distributions of pinning centers. We showed that Ri(H) decreases significantly at small fields as the material gets dirtier while showing field independent behavior at higher fields for clean and dirty limit. At low frequencies Ri(H) increases smoothly with the field amplitude at small H and levels off at higher fields. The mean free path dependency of viscosity and pinning strength can result in a nonmonotonic mean free path dependence of Ri, which decreases with li at higher fields and weak pinning strength.
 
poster icon Poster SUPFDV003 [1.339 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPFDV003  
About • Received ※ 20 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 19 December 2021 — Issue date; ※ 09 April 2022  
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SUPFDV006 Investigation of SIS Multilayer Films at HZB 72
 
  • D.B. Tikhonov, S. Keckert, J. Knobloch, O. Kugeler
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  • E. Chyhyrynets, C. Pira
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro (PD), Italy
  • J. Knobloch
    University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany
  • S.B. Leith, M. Vogel
    University Siegen, Siegen, Germany
 
  Funding: The manufacture of the QPR samples received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme under Grant Agreement No 730871
The systematic study of multilayer SIS films (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) is being conducted in Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin. Such films theoretically should boost the performance of superconducting cavities, and reduce some problems related to bulk Nb such as magnetic flux trapping. Up to now such films have been presented in theory, but the RF performance of those structures have not been widely studied. In this contribution we present the results of the latest tests of AlN-NbN films, deposited on micrometers-thick Nb layers on copper. It has, also, been shown previously at HZB that such SIS films may show some unexpected behavior in surface resistance versus temperature parameter space. In this contribution we continue to investigate those effects with the variation of different parameters of films (such as insulator thickness) and production recipes.
 
poster icon Poster SUPFDV006 [2.229 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPFDV006  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 09 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 12 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 21 December 2021
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SUPFDV007 Magnetic Field Penetration of Niobium Thin Films Produced by the ARIES Collaboration 77
 
  • D.A. Turner
    Cockcroft Institute, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
  • G. Burt, K.D. Dumbell, O.B. Malyshev, R. Valizadeh
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • G. Burt
    Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
  • E. Chyhyrynets, C. Pira
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro (PD), Italy
  • T. Junginger
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
  • T. Junginger
    UVIC, Victoria, Canada
  • S.B. Leith, M. Vogel
    University Siegen, Siegen, Germany
  • O.B. Malyshev, R. Valizadeh
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • A. Medvids
    Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia
  • R. Ries
    Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
  • E. Seiler
    IEE, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
  • A. Sublet
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
  • J.T.G. Wilson
    STFC/DL, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  Superconducting (SC) thin film coatings on Cu substrates are already widely used as an alternative to bulk Nb SRF structures. Using Cu allows improved thermal stability compared to Nb due to having a greater thermal conductivity. Niobium thin film coatings also reduce the amount of Nb required to produce a cavity. The performance of thin film Nb cavities is not as good as bulk Nb cavities. The H2020 ARIES WP15 collaboration studied the impact of substrate polishing and the effect produced on Nb thin film depositions. Multiple samples were produced from Cu and polished with various techniques. The polished Cu substrates were then coated with a Nb film at partner institutions. These samples were characterised with surface characterisation techniques for film morphology and structure. The SC properties were studied with 2 DC techniques, a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and a magnetic field penetration (MFP) facility. The results conclude that both chemical polishing and electropolishing produce the best DC properties in the MFP facility. A comparison between the VSM and the MFP facility can be made for 10 micron thick samples, but not for 3 micron thick samples.  
poster icon Poster SUPFDV007 [1.059 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPFDV007  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 28 October 2021 — Issue date; ※ 09 April 2022  
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SUPFDV009 Thermal Annealing of Sputtered Nb3Sn and V3Si Thin Films for Superconducting RF Cavities 82
 
  • K. Howard, M. Liepe, Z. Sun
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Funding: U.S. National Science Foundation under Award PHY-1549132, the Center for Bright Beams and Cornell Center for Materials Research Shared Facilities supported through the NSF MRSEC program (DMR-1719875)
Nb3Sn and V3Si thin films are alternative material candidates for the next-generation of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. However, past sputtered films suffer from stoichiometry and strain issues during deposition and post annealing. As such, we aim to explore the structural and chemical effects of thermal annealing, both in-situ and post-sputtering, on DC-sputtered Nb3Sn and V3Si with varying thickness on Nb or Cu substrates. We successfully enabled recrystallization of 100 nm thin Nb3Sn films with stoichiometric and strain-free grains at 950 C annealing. For 2 um films, we observed removal of strain and slight increase in grain size with increasing temperature. A phase transformation from unstable to stable structure appeared on thick V3Si samples, while we observed significant Sn loss in thick Nb3Sn films at high temperature anneals. For films on Cu substrates, we observed similar Sn and Si loss during annealing likely due to Cu-Sn and Cu-Si phase generation and subsequent Sn and Si evaporation. These results encourage us to refine our process to obtain high quality films for SRF use.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPFDV009  
About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Revised ※ 06 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 12 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 17 March 2022
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SUPFDV012 The Development of HiPIMS Multilayer SIS Film Coatings on Copper for SRF Applications 86
 
  • S.B. Leith, X. Jiang, A.O. Sezgin, M. Vogel
    University Siegen, Siegen, Germany
  • B. Butz, Y. Li, J. Müller
    MNaF, Siegen, Germany
  • S. Keckert, J. Knobloch, O. Kugeler, D.B. Tikhonov
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  • J. Knobloch
    University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany
  • R. Ries, E. Seiler
    Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
 
  Funding: Authors acknowledge both the EASITrain, Marie Sklodowska-Curie Action (MSCA) Innovative Training Network (ITN), Grant Agreement no. 764879 and the ARIES collaboration, Grant Agreement no. 730871
In recent years, the use of alternatives to bulk Nb in the fabrication of SRF cavities, including novel materials and/or fabrication techniques, have been extensively explored by the SRF community. One of these new methodologies is the use of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) multilayer structure. Typically, these have been envisaged for use with bulk Nb cavities. However, it is conceivable to combine the benefits of SIS structures with the benefits of coated Cu cavities. It is also clear that the use of energetic deposition techniques such as high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), provide significant benefits over typical DC magnetron sputtering (MS) coatings, in terms of SRF performance. In light of this, two series of multilayer SIS film coatings, with a Nb-AlN-NbN structure, were deposited onto electropolished OFHC Cu samples, with the use of HiPIMS, in order to determine the efficacy of this approach. This contribution details the development of these coatings and the required optimization of the coating parameters of the separate material systems, through the use of multiple material and superconducting characterization techniques.
 
poster icon Poster SUPFDV012 [2.056 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPFDV012  
About • Received ※ 20 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 December 2021 — Issue date; ※ 27 April 2022  
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SUPFDV013 HiPIMS NbN Thin Film Development for Use in Multilayer SIS Films 91
 
  • S.B. Leith, B. Bai, X. Jiang, M. Vogel
    University Siegen, Siegen, Germany
  • R. Ries, E. Seiler
    Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
 
  Funding: Authors acknowledge both the EASITrain, Marie Sklodowska-Curie Action (MSCA) Innovative Training Network (ITN), Grant Agreement no. 764879 and the ARIES collaboration, Grant Agreement no. 730871
As part of efforts to improve the performance of SRF cavities, the use of alternative structures, such as superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) film coatings have been extensively investigated. Initial efforts using DC magnetron sputtering (MS) deposited NbN films showed the efficacy of this approach. The use of energetic condensation methods, such as high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), have already improved the performance of Nb thin films for SRF cavities and have already been used for nitride film coatings in the tool industry. In this contribution, the results from the deposition of HiPIMS NbN thin films onto oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) Cu substrates are presented. The effects of the different deposition parameters on the deposited films were elucidated through various characterisation methods, resulting in an optimum coating procedure. This allowed for further comparison between the HiPIMS NbN films and the previously presented DC MS NbN films. The results indicate the improvements offered by HiPIMS deposition, most notably, the significant increase in the entry field, and its applicability to the deposition of SIS films on Cu.
 
poster icon Poster SUPFDV013 [0.918 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPFDV013  
About • Received ※ 20 June 2021 — Revised ※ 08 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 12 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 25 October 2021
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SUPFDV015 Preliminary Results from Magnetic Field Scanning System for a Single-Cell Niobium Cavity 96
 
  • I.P. Parajuli, G. Ciovati, J.R. Delayen, A.V. Gurevich
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  • G. Ciovati, J.R. Delayen
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  One of the building blocks of modern particle accelerators is superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities. Niobium is the material of choice to build such cavities, which operate at liquid helium temperature (2 - 4 K) and have some of the highest quality factors found in Nature. There are several sources of residual losses, one of them is trapped magnetic flux, which limits the quality factor in SRF cavities. The flux trapping mechanism depends on different niobium surface preparations and cool-down conditions. Suitable diagnostic tools are not yet available to study the effects of such conditions on magnetic flux trapping. A magnetic field scanning system (MFSS) for SRF cavities using Hall probes and Fluxgate magnetometer has been designed, built, and is commissioned to measure the local magnetic field trapped in 1.3 GHz single-cell SRF cavities at 4 K. In this contribution, we will present the preliminary results from MFSS for a single cell niobium cavity.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPFDV015  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 13 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 08 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 27 April 2022
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SUPFDV016 A Low Power Test Facility for SRF Thin Film Testing with High Sample Throughput Rate 100
 
  • D.J. Seal
    Cockcroft Institute, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
  • G. Burt, P. Goudket, O.B. Malyshev, B.S. Sian, R. Valizadeh
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • G. Burt, B.S. Sian
    Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
  • J.A. Conlon, P. Goudket, O.B. Malyshev, R. Valizadeh
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  A low-power SRF test facility is being upgraded at Daresbury Laboratory as part of the superconducting thin film testing programme. The facility consists of a bulk niobium test cavity operating at 7.8 GHz, surrounded by RF chokes, and can be run with input RF powers up to 1 W. It is housed within a liquid helium free cryostat and is able to test thin film planar samples up to 100 mm in diameter with a thickness between 1 and 20 mm. The RF chokes allow the cavity to be physically and thermally isolated from the sample, thus reducing the need for complicated sample mounting, whilst minimising field leakage out of the cavity. This allows for a fast turnaround time of two to three days per sample. Initial tests using a newly designed sample holder have shown that an RF-DC compensation method can be used successfully to calculate the surface resistance of samples down to 4 K. Potential upgrades include a pick-up antenna for direct measurements of stored energy and the addition of a self-excited loop to mitigate the effects of microphonics. Details of this facility and preliminary results are described in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPFDV016  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 12 August 2021 — Issue date; ※ 18 December 2021  
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SUPFDV018 CERN Based Tc Measurement Station for Thin-Film Coated Copper Samples and Results on Related Studies 105
 
  • D. Fonnesu, J. Bremer, T. Koettig, L. Laín-Amador, C. Pereira Carlos, G.J. Rosaz, A.P.O. Vaaranta
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
 
  Funding: EASITrain - European Advanced Superconductivity Innovation and Training. This MSCA ITN has received funding from the European Union’s H2020 Framework Programme under GA no. 764879.
In the framework of The Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study, the development of thin-film coated superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities capable of providing higher accelerating fields (10 to 20 MV/m against 5 MV/m of LHC) represents a major challenge. In this work, we present the development of a test stand commissioned at CERN for the inductive measurement of the critical temperature (Tc) of SC thin-film deposited on copper samples for SRF applications. Based on new studies for the production of Non Evaporable Getters (NEG) coated chambers [1], we also present the first results of an alternative forming method for seamless copper cavities with niobium layer integrated in the production process.
[1] doi:10.1116/1.4999539
 
poster icon Poster SUPFDV018 [1.611 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPFDV018  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 09 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 12 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 01 May 2022
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SUPFDV020 ALD-Based NbIiN Studies for SIS R&D 109
 
  • I. González Díaz-Palacio, R.H. Blick, R. Zierold
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • W. Hillert, M. Wenskat
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor multilayers improve the performance of SRF cavities providing magnetic screening of the bulk cavity and lower surface resistance. In this framework NbTiN mixtures stand as a potential material of interest. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) allows for uniform coating of complex geometries and enables tuning of the stoichiometry and precise thickness control in sub-nm range. In this talk, we report about NbTiN thin films deposited by plasma-enhanced ALD on insulating AlN buffer layer. The deposition process has been optimized by studying the superconducting electrical properties of the films. Post-deposition thermal annealing studies with varying temperatures, annealing times, and gas atmospheres have been performed to further improve the thin film quality and the superconducting properties. Our experimental studies show an increase in Tc by 87.5% after thermal annealing and a maximum Tc of 13.9 K has been achieved for NbTiN of 23 nm thickness. Future steps include lattice characterization, using XRR/XRD/EBSD/PALS, and SRF measurements to obtain Hc1 and the superconducting gap.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPFDV020  
About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Revised ※ 17 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 17 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 19 January 2022
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MOPFDV001 Investigation of an Alternative Path for SRF Cavity Fabrication and Surface Processing 319
 
  • O. Hryhorenko, D. Longuevergne
    Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS/IN2P3, IJCLab, Orsay, France
  • C.Z. Antoine
    CEA-IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • F. Brisset
    ICMMO, Orsay, France
  • T. Dohmae
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  The preparation of SRF cavities includes a lengthy, costly, and safety issued electrochemical polishing (EP or BCP) step to remove the damaged layer coming from the cavity fabrication. We have shown that most of the damage layer is originated from the rolling process during the preparation of the sheet material, while subsequent deep drawing tends to leave only µm thick damage layer. We propose a 2-steps mechanical process that allows us to easily get rid of the thick damage layer on the sheets before cavity forming. The process has been established on samples and extended to large disks ready for 1.3 GHz half-cell forming. The polished sheets will be then sent to KEK for half-cell forming and subsequent surface and material analysis before proceeding to half-cell welding. Former studies on the sample demonstrated that damages induced by forming can successfully be removed by recrystallization and less than 10 µm final chemistry.  
poster icon Poster MOPFDV001 [2.303 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-MOPFDV001  
About • Received ※ 25 June 2021 — Revised ※ 11 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 15 May 2022
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MOPFDV002 High Density Mapping Sytems for SRF Cavities 323
 
  • Y. Fuwa
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-mura, Japan
  • R.L. Geng
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • Y. Iwashita, Y. Kuriyama
    Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute, Osaka, Japan
  • H. Tongu
    Kyoto ICR, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
 
  High density mapping systems for superconducting cavities are prepared. They include sX-map, XT-map and B-map. Each strip of the sX-map system has 32 X-ray sensors approximately 10 mm apart, which can be installed under the stiffener rings to show uniform higher sensitivities. This is suitable to get X-ray distribution around iris areas. The XT-map system enables temperature distribution mapping of cavity cells with high spatial resolution at approximately 10 mm intervals in both azimuth and latitude. It also gives X-ray distribution on cells, as well. Magnetic field distributions can be obtained by B-map system using AMR sensors. Since all these systems are based on the technology of multiplexing at cryogenic side, less number of wires can carry the huge number of signals. The systems are described.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-MOPFDV002  
About • Received ※ 02 July 2021 — Revised ※ 19 December 2021 — Accepted ※ 22 January 2022 — Issue date ※ 02 May 2022
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MOPFDV003 Measuring Flux Trapping Using Flat Samples 326
 
  • F. Kramer, S. Keckert, J. Knobloch, O. Kugeler
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  • J. Knobloch
    University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany
 
  With modern superconducting cavities flux trapping is a limiting factor for the achievable quality factor. Flux trapping is influenced by various parameters such as geometry, material, and cooldown dynamics. At SRF2019 we presented data showing the magnetic field surrounding a cavity. We now present supplemental simulations for this data focusing on geometric effects. As these simulations are inconclusive, we have designed a new setup to measure trapped flux in superconducting samples which is presented as well. The advantages compared to a cavity test are the simpler sample geometry, and quicker sample production, as well as shorter measurement times. With this setup we hope to identify fundamental mechanisms of flux trapping, including geometry effects, different materials, and different treatments. First results are presented along with the setup itself.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-MOPFDV003  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 03 April 2022 — Issue date; ※ 02 May 2022  
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MOPFDV008 SRF Levitation and Trapping of Nanoparticles 331
 
  • R.L. Geng
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
  • P. Dhakal, B.J. Kross, F. Marhauser, J.E. McKisson, J. Musson, H. Wang, A. Weisenberger, W.Z. Xi
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences & Office of Nuclear Physics.
A proposal has been conceived to levitate and trap mesoscopic particles using radio frequency (RF) fields in a superconducting RF(SRF) cavity. Exploiting the intrinsic characteristics of an SRF cavity, this proposal aims at overcoming a major limit faced by state-of-the-art laser trapping techniques. The goal of the proposal is to establish a foundation to enable observation of quantum phenomena of an isolated mechanical oscillator interacting with microwave fields. An experiment supported by LDRD funding at JLab has started to address R&D issues relevant to these new research directions using existing SRF facilities at JLab. The success of this experiment would establish its groundbreaking relevance to quantum information science and technology, which may lead to applications in precision force measurement sensors, quantum memories, and alternative quantum computing implementations with promises for superior coherence characteristics and scalability well beyond the start-of-the-art. In this contribution, we will introduce the proposal and basic consideration of the experiment.
 
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DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-MOPFDV008  
About • Received ※ 10 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 30 September 2021 — Issue date; ※ 02 May 2022  
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MOPFDV009 On the Nature of Surface Defects Found in 2/0 N-Doped 9-Cell Cavities 336
 
  • A. Cano, D. Bafia, A. Grassellino, J. Lee, M. Martinello, A.S. Romanenko, T. Spina, Z-H. Sung
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  In this contribution, we present a systematic study on the microstructure of 1.3 GHz 9-cell TESLA type SRF cavity, processed with 2/0 Nitrogen-doping surface treatment, to explain the premature quench phenomena commonly observed in N-doping treated cavities. The microstructure characterization was carried out using Secondary electron images, advanced metallurgical techniques such as EBSD in parallel with chemical information obtained from spectroscopic techniques. The most remarkable difference is observed in the ends-cavities (1 and 9), which showed roughening of the surface, revealing a series of morphologies associated with Nb cubic phase. The cell-to-cell analysis also showed standard features such as pits with different geometry and distribution, located in grains and grain boundaries. The defects found in this system suggest that the standard electropolishing chemical etching was insufficient to eliminate history defects produced during the manufacture of the cavity, without discarding the role of the impurities, N and O, that could have induced the growth of these morphologies.
H. Padamsee, RF superconductivity (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co., KGaA, Weinheim, 2009)
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-MOPFDV009  
About • Received ※ 29 June 2021 — Revised ※ 11 March 2022 — Accepted ※ 10 May 2022 — Issue date ※ 11 May 2022
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MOPFDV010 MICROSTRUCTURE CHANGES OBSERVED IN THE NEAR-SURFACE REGION OF SRF Nb CAVITIES CUTOUTS UPON COOLING/HEATING CYCLES USING GI-SYNCHROTRON XRD 339
 
  • A. Cano, D. Bafia, A. Grassellino, J. Lee, M. Martinello, A.S. Romanenko, T. Spina, Z-H. Sung
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • E.A. Karapetrova
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
 
  We have mapped microstructural changes in the near-surface region of Nb from SRF cavity-cutouts upon thermal cycles in the range from 300 to 30K using grazing incidence synchrotron X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). Segregation of secondary phases was observed after the thermal cycle, and their nature has been clarified and discussed in view of previous studies on hydrides formation in SRF bulk Nb cavities. The temperature dependence of the relative population of these formed phases was obtained from GIXRD patterns profile fitting. Both, Nb bulk matrix and the new phases formed after cool-down show specific structural features as thermal contraction/expansion, structural transitions, and Nb lattice variation due to the induced strain by precipitates formation. The information derived from this structural study can explain some phenomena as the dissipation at high accelerating field (i.e. High Field Q Slope, HFQS) in the Nb SRF performance as well as new mechanisms never addressed in previous studies.
A Romanenko, F Barkov, LD Cooley, A Grassellino, Proximity breakdown of hydrides in superconducting niobium cavities, Superconductor Science and Technology, 2013
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-MOPFDV010  
About • Received ※ 28 June 2021 — Revised ※ 12 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 23 September 2021
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TUOFDV01
Dynamic Penetration Field of Vortices in a Superconductor Under RF Magnetic Field  
 
  • A. Sheikhzada, A.V. Gurevich
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by DOE under grant No. DE-SC0010081.
We address the nonlinear dynamics of penetration of vortices in a superconductor subject to a periodic magnetic field H(t)=H0\sinω t parallel to the surface. The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations for a gapped superconductor were simulated numerically to calculate the frequency and temperature dependencies of the field onset Hp(T,ω) of vortex penetration at T≈ Tc. It is shown that Hp(T,ω) can exceed the dc superheating field Hs at which the Meissner state becomes unstable. Here Hp(T,ω) increases with ω and approaches {2}Hs(T) at ωτ≥ 1, where τ(T) is the energy relaxation time of quasiparticles on phonons. We also investigated the effect of surface topographic defects on Hp(T,ω) and showed that they can substantially reduce Hp(T,ω) and cause additional power dissipation. Ultimately, we draw conclusions by comparing the results of our calculations with recent experimental measurements.
 
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TUOFDV02
Observation of Precise Distribution of Trapped Magnetic Flux Due to Quench by M&T Mapping System  
 
  • T. Okada
    Sokendai, Ibaraki, Japan
  • E. Kako, M. Masuzawa, H. Sakai, R. Ueki, K. Umemori
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • P. Pizzol, A. Poudel, T. Tajima
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
 
  This study focused on the flux trapping of the superconducting cavity by measuring changes in the spatial magnetic field distribution for the Nb single-cell cavity using the magnetic field and temperature mapping system. The different external magnetic fields were applied when the cavity was vertically tested. The differences of magnetic field distribution were compared before and after flux trapping caused by quenches. The magnetic field mapping measured the magnetic field, including 3 axial directions, outside the equator of the cavity. Moreover, the local heating generated by the magnetic flux trapping was observed locally using temperature mapping. The result shows that the changes in the magnetic field distribution have the magnetic field components towards the quench location. In this presentation, the detail of experiments and results of the change of the magnetic field distribution and the local heating will be presented.  
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TUOFDV03 Vacancy-Hydrogen Dynamics and Magnetic Impurities During Mid-T Bake 342
 
  • M. Wenskat, C. Bate, D. Reschke, J. Schaffran, L. Steder, H. Weise
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • C. Bate, G.D.L. Semione, A. Stierle
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • M. Butterling, E. Hirschmann, M.O. Liedke, A. Wagner
    HZDR, Dresden, Germany
  • J. Cizek
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
  • W. Hillert
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Positron annihilation measurements allow to study the hydrogen interaction with vacancies in a crystal lattice. Furthermore, the 3/2 ratio of the positronium annihilation can be used to identify local magnetic impurities in thin layers. Dynamic studies of these properties in annealing studies up to 300°C will be presented. The discussion is accompanied by X-ray reflectivity studies performed on single crystal samples to study the niobium oxide dissolution. The dynamics of magnetic impurities during a Mid-T bake will be presented, put into the context of cavity studies and a potential link to rf properties will be discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUOFDV03  
About • Received ※ 23 June 2021 — Revised ※ 12 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 05 December 2021
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TUOFDV04
Evidence of Reduced Magnetic Sensitivities in Low Beta SRF Cavities  
 
  • D. Longuevergne
    Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS/IN2P3, IJCLab, Orsay, France
  • A. Miyazaki
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
 
  Dedicated flux trapping experiments have been carried out on different types of low-beta superconducting accelerating cavities. The measured magnetic sensitivities of these complex geometries can be significantly lower than the predicted values calculated by commonly-used material-based models. In this paper, we suggest a new approach beyond the present material based models. Indeed, both the ambient magnetic field orientation and cavity geometry have a significant impact on the cavity performance degradation due to magnetic trapped flux. Experimental data are presented, and a new model to interpret the geometrical effect is introduced, assessed and shows as well very good agreement with data from the literature.  
slides icon Slides TUOFDV04 [1.259 MB]  
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TUOFDV05 Dynamics of RF Dissipation Probed via High-Speed Temperature Mapping 349
 
  • R.D. Porter, N. Banerjee, M. Liepe
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Recently, Cornell University has developed a new high-speed, high-resolution temperature mapping system that can resolve the time dynamics of RF dissipation, i.e., provide high-speed videos of the surface heating across the entire surface of the cavity. This new powerful tool allows to observe rapid changes in the local RF dissipation, as well as to resolve the dynamics of quenches, field emission processing, and other cavity events, giving new insights into these. This contribution presents the development of this new high-speed temperature mapping system, discusses its commissioning and extensive performance testing (e.g., demonstrating micro-Kelvin resolution), as well as show intriguing high-speed temperature mapping results from multiple Nb3Sn cavities.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUOFDV05  
About • Received ※ 01 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date; ※ 06 February 2022  
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TUOFDV06
Cavity Performance Limitations Understanding via SIMS Studies of Cavity Cutouts  
 
  • A.S. Romanenko
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  The performance limitations of the modern SRF cavities are related to the near-surface cavity material structure, including the distribution of interstitial impurities such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. The most direct way to connect the observed quality factors and achievable gradients to the material structure is to analyze the cavity cutouts using the most suitable analytical instruments and technique. In this contribution I will present the most recent insight gained from such studies using the state-of-the-art time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) on cutouts from the highest gradient-performing cavities, as well as the cavities prepared with the "mid-T" bake. The origins of the observed cavity behavior will be discussed.  
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TUOFDV07 Sample Test Systems for Next-Gen SRF Surfaces 357
 
  • T.E. Oseroff, M. Liepe, Z. Sun
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  With the increasing worldwide focus on the development of new surfaces for SRF cavities, exploring alternative materials and multilayer structures, test systems that allow measuring the RF performance of simple sample geometries (e.g., flat samples) become increasingly essential. These systems provide RF performance results that are needed to guide the development of these surfaces. This contribution gives an overview of sample test systems currently available, including the improved Cornell sample host cavity. Recent advances in this important technology, performance specifications, and current limitations are discussed. In addition, an overview is given of interesting recent RF performance results on samples coated with non-niobium bulk and multilayer films.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUOFDV07  
About • Received ※ 08 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date; ※ 05 September 2021  
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TUOFDV08 First Beta NMR Results on SRF Samples at TRIUMF 365
 
  • E. Thoeng, J.R. Adelman, A. Chatzichristos, M. Dehn, D. Fujimoto, V.L. Karner, R. Kiefl, W.A. MacFarlane, J.O. Ticknor
    UBC & TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • M. Asaduzzaman, T. Junginger
    UVIC, Victoria, Canada
  • R.A. Baartman, S.R. Dunsiger, T. Junginger, P. Kolb, R.E. Laxdal, C.D.P. Levy, Li,R. Li, R.M.L. McFadden, I. McKenzie, G. Morris, S. Saminathan, M. Stachura
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
  • D.L. Cortie
    University of Wollongong, Institute of Superconducting and Electronic Materials, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
 
  The \betaNMR (\beta-detected nuclear magnetic resonance) facility at TRIUMF offers the possibility of depth-resolved probing of the Meissner state over the first §I{100}{\nano\meter} below a sample surface. The measurement can give the attenuation of the applied magnetic field, as a function of depth. The technique can be especially important when probing layered systems like the dirty/clean S-S (superconductor-superconductor) bi-layer and S-I-S (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) structures. The TRIUMF SRF (Superconducting RF) group has recently completed first measurements at beta-NMR on Nb samples with various treatments. The results and method will be reported.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUOFDV08  
About • Received ※ 09 July 2021 — Revised ※ 29 September 2021 — Accepted ※ 07 May 2022 — Issue date ※ 08 May 2022
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TUPFDV001 Effect of Heating Rate on Recrystallization in Rolled Multicrystals of Pure Niobium 396
 
  • T.R. Bieler, D. Kang
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  • R.R. Desconocido, M.T. Sanchez
    UPM, Madrid, Spain
  • N. Fleming, C. McKinney, Z.L. Thune, K. Zheng
    MSU, East Lansing, USA
  • A.A. Kolka
    Niowave, Inc., Lansing, Michigan, USA
 
  Funding: Supported by US Dept. of Energy award DE-SC0009960.
The performance of niobium cavities in superconducting radiofrequency particle accelerators requires nearly defect-free inner surfaces. While methods to obtain smooth inner surfaces are established, the role of metallurgical defects on superconducting performance is also important, as defects such as grain boundaries and dislocations are known to trap flux that dissipates energy and reduces efficiency. Variable microstructure and texture gradients may account for the observed variability in cavity performance, so it is hypothesized that the texture and microstructure gradients originate from the large grain size of ingots, whose influence is not completely erased in the process of making sheet metal. To examine the evolution of microstructure and texture gradients, the crystal orientations present in a cylindrical cap rolled to ~90% reduction were heat treated. Initial crystal orientations were measured before rolling, and before and after slow and rapid heating rate vacuum heat treatments.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPFDV001  
About • Received ※ 23 June 2021 — Revised ※ 22 February 2022 — Accepted ※ 04 May 2022 — Issue date ※ 16 May 2022
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TUPFDV002 SIMS Sample Holder and Grain Orientation Effects 401
 
  • J.W. Angle, M.J. Kelley
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA
  • M.J. Kelley, E.M. Lechner, A.D. Palczewski, C.E. Reece
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • F.A. Stevie
    NCSU AIF, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
 
  SIMS analyses for ’N-doped’ materials are becoming increasingly important. A major hurdle to acquiring quantitative SIMS results for these materials is the uncertainty of instrument calibration due to changes in sample height either from sample topography or from the sample holder itself. The CAMECA sample holder design allows for many types of samples to be analyzed. However, the cost is that the holder faceplate can bend, introducing uncertainty into the SIMS results. Here we designed and created an improved sample holder which is reinforced to prevent faceplate deflection and thereby reduce uncertainty. Simulations show that the new design significantly reduces deflection from 10 µm to 5 nm. Measurements show a reduction of calibration (RSF) uncertainty from this source from 4.1% to 0.95%. Grain orientation has long been suspected to affect RSF determination as well. A bicrystal implant standard consisting of [111] and [001] grains were repeatedly rotated 15° in between analyses. It was observed that 20% of the analyses performed on [111] grains exhibited anomalously high RSF values likely due to the changing of the grain normal with respect to the primary Cs+ beam.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPFDV002  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 11 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 05 January 2022
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TUPFDV004 A SIMS Approach for the Analysis of Furnace Contamination 406
 
  • J.W. Angle, M.J. Kelley
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA
  • M.J. Kelley, E.M. Lechner, A.D. Palczewski, C.E. Reece
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • F.A. Stevie
    NCSU AIF, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
 
  Detection of surface contamination for SRF material is difficult due to the miniscule quantities and near atomic resolution needed. Visual inspection of samples known to have experienced surface contamination were found to have inconsistent nitride coverage after nitrogen doping. EBSD analysis suggest that nitride suppression tends to be most prevalent when deviating from the [111] and [001] zone axes. XPS suggested that tin was present as a contaminant on the surface with SIMS mass spectra also confirming its presence. SIMS depth profiles show a depletion of nitrogen content as well as an increase in car-bon content for contaminated samples.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPFDV004  
About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Revised ※ 11 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 19 February 2022
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TUPFDV006 Dynamics of One-Side Multipactor on Dielectrics 411
 
  • G.V. Romanov
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Breakdown of dielectric RF windows is an important issue for particle accelerators and high-power RF sources. One of the generally considered reasons for the RF windows failure is the multipactor effect on dielectric surface. The multipactor may be responsible for excessive heating of dielectric and discharge of charges that accumulated in ceramic due to secondary emission. In this study the comprehensive self-consistent PIC simulations with space charge effect were performed in order to better understand the dynamic of one-side multipactor development and floating potential on dielectric induced by the emission. The important correlations between the multipactor parameters at saturation and the secondary emission properties of dielectric and the applied RF field parameters were found and are reported in the paper.  
poster icon Poster TUPFDV006 [0.844 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPFDV006  
About • Received ※ 17 June 2021 — Revised ※ 12 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 06 October 2021
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TUPFDV007 Surface Impedance of Nb3Sn and YBa2Cu3O7-δ in High Magnetic Fields 416
 
  • N. Pompeo, A. Alimenti, E. Silva, K. Torokhtii
    Università degli Studi Roma III, Roma, Italy
  • G. Celentano, V. Pinto, F. Rizzo
    ENEA C.R. Frascati, Frascati (Roma), Italy
  • R. Flükiger
    UNIGE, Geneva, Switzerland
  • T. Spina
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: This work has been partially carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion consortium, funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-18 and 2019-20 under grant agreement No 633053
New potential rf applications of superconductors emerged with the need to operate in high dc magnetic fields (up to 16 T) where vortex motion dictates the response: the beam screen coating of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) [1] and haloscopes, i.e. rf cavities for the axions detection [2]. However, very few data are available in the required regimes. We present in this work measurements of the surface impedance Z up to 12 T on bulk Nb3Sn and YBCO thin films grown by different techniques. The measurements are performed with a dielectric loaded resonator operating at 15 GHz. We obtained the vortex motion resistivity and extracted the high frequency vortex motion parameters [3]: the depinning frequency, the flux-flow resistivity and the pinning constant, as well as their temperature and field dependences. Substantial differences are highlighted in the high frequency pinning properties of the studied materials, providing useful information on possible improvements in view of applications. A comparison with the results obtained in the microwave frequency range at lower fields (up to 1 T) is given.
[1] S. Calatroni, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 26 p. 3500204, 2016.
[2] D. Alesini et al., Phys. Rev. D, vol. 99, p. 101101, 2019.
[3] J.I. Gittleman and B. Rosenblum, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 16, p.734, 1966.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPFDV007  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date; ※ 02 January 2022  
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TUPFDV008 Instrumentation R&D for the Studies of SRF Thin-Film Structures at KEK and Kyoto University 421
 
  • Y. Fuwa
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-mura, Japan
  • H. Hayano, H. Ito, R. Katayama, T. Kubo, T. Saeki
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • Y. Iwashita, Y. Kuriyama
    Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute, Osaka, Japan
  • H. Tongu
    Kyoto ICR, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
 
  We have been developing SRF instrumentations by which the effective lower critical magnetic field Hc1,eff of superconducting-material sample is evaluated through the method of the third-order harmonic voltage measurement mainly for the studies of new SRF thin-film structures. Recently, the quad coil system, which enables us to measure four samples simultaneously in a single batch of an experiment, has been developed. In order to study the creation of thin-film structures inside the SRF cavity, we developed 3-GHz-shaped coupon cavities and an XT-map system for the performance tests of 3 GHz cavities. This article reports the details of these works.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPFDV008  
About • Received ※ 01 July 2021 — Revised ※ 19 December 2021 — Accepted ※ 02 April 2022 — Issue date ※ 02 May 2022
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TUPFDV010 New Recipes to Optimize the Niobium Oxide Surface From First-Principles Calculations 426
 
  • N. Sitaraman, T. Arias, Z. Baraissov, M.M. Kelley, D.A. Muller
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • M. Liepe, R.D. Porter, Z. Sun
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Award No. PHY-1549132, the Center for Bright Beams
The properties of niobium oxide are of critical importance for a wide range of topics, from the behavior of nitrogen during infusion treatments, to the nucleation of Nb3Sn, to the superconducting properties of the surface. However, the modeling of the oxide is often much simplified, ignoring the variety of niobium oxide phases and the extremely different properties of these phases in the presence of impurities and defects. We use density functional theory (DFT) to investigate how electrochemical treatments and gas infusion procedures change the properties of niobium oxide, and to investigate how these properties could be optimized for Nb3Sn nucleation and for niobium SRF performance.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPFDV010  
About • Received ※ 01 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 18 November 2021 — Issue date; ※ 22 February 2022  
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WEPFDV004 A New Model for Q-Slope in SRF Cavities: RF Heating at Multiple Josephson Junctions at Weakly Linked Grain Boundaries or Dislocations 556
 
  • K. Saito
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • K. Saito
    FRIB, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
 
  Several models are already proposed for Q-slopes in SRF cavity performance, medium field Q-slope (MFQS), high field Q-slope (HFQS). However, these does not explain both in a way unified. Here, a new model by multiple Josephson junctions on weakly linked grain boundaries or dislocations is proposed for the unified explanation. This model suggests two kind of junctions: ceramic like one and weak superconductor one. If plotted the field vs. RF power dissipation, an increase of RF loss is remarkably observed in proportional to the cube of fields, on both BCP’ed and EP’ed cavity (MFQS). An exponential RF dissipation is often observed at high fields for BCP’ed cavity (HFQS). If supposed the number of J-junctions linearly increases with the fields (this is explained by the flux quantum penetration condition), these behaviors are easily explained. In addition, this model has a potential to explain the anti-Q slope behavior observed in Nitrogen doped or mid-temperature baked cavity. In this paper, this model will be explained, then several data analysis results will be presented.  
poster icon Poster WEPFDV004 [2.196 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPFDV004  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 11 November 2021 — Issue date; ※ 16 May 2022  
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WEPFDV005 Tensile Tests of Large Grain Ingot Niobium at Liquid He Temperature 562
 
  • M. Yamanaka
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • K. Enami
    Tsukuba University, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  Tensile tests at liquid He temperature were performed using specimen taken from high purity large grain niobium ingot produced by CBMM. The measured RRR is 242. The ingot is 260 mm in diameter and sliced by a multi wire saw to 2.8 thickness. 5 specimens were cut off from one sliced disk. 3 disks were set in same phase to obtain same grain distribution. 3 specimens each of 5 grain patterns 5, 15 in total were used for the tensile test. The tensile test stand using a cryostat and liquid He was manufactured by ourselves. The measured tensile strength varied 379 to 808 MPa. The average value is 611 MPa. The tensile strength at room temperature is 84 MPa. The strength becomes high at low temperature like a fine grain niobium. The specimen includes a grain boundary, and causes the variation of strength. The different result was obtained in same grain patterns. The relationship between crystal orientation and strength is discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPFDV005  
About • Received ※ 08 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 12 September 2021 — Issue date; ※ 02 May 2022  
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WEPFDV006 Activities at NCBJ Towards Development of the Future, Fully-Superconducting, XFEL-Type, RF Electron Gun 566
 
  • J. Lorkiewicz, P.J. Czuma, A.M. Kosińska, P. Krawczyk, R.M. Mirowski, R. Nietubyć, M. Staszczak, K. Szamota-Leandersson
    NCBJ, Świerk/Otwock, Poland
  • J.K. Sekutowicz
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Our group at NCBJ works on upgrade of 1.6-cell, SRF, XFEL-type injector in collaboration with DESY and other laboratories. The work is focused on preparation of lead-on-niobium photocathode, its positioning in the gun cavity and on the UV laser system for photocurrent excitation. RF focusing effect was used to minimize the predicted emittance and transverse size of accelerated e- beam. Following beam dynamics computation, it has been proposed that the photocathode be recessed 0.45 mm into the rear wall of the gun cavity. It helps focusing e- beam in its low-energy part. Preparation of sc cathodes of Pb layer on Nb plugs (*, **) is reported, aimed at reaching clean, planar and uniform Pb films. The laser system will consist of commercially available Pharos laser and a 4-th harmonic generator. A gaussian, 300 fs long, 257 nm in wavelength UV pulse will be transformed in time by a pulse stretcher/stacker and in space by pi-shaper. The planned optical system will generate cylindrical photoelectron bunch 2 - 30 ps long and 0.2 - 3 mm wide.
* J. Lorkiewicz et al., Vacuum 179 (2020) 109524
** R. Nietubyc et al., NIM A891 (2018) pp. 78-86
 
poster icon Poster WEPFDV006 [2.014 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPFDV006  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 13 April 2022 — Issue date; ※ 03 May 2022  
Cite • reference for this paper using ※ BibTeX, ※ LaTeX, ※ Text/Word, ※ RIS, ※ EndNote (xml)  
 
WEPFDV007 Main Highlights of ARIES WP15 Collaboration 571
 
  • O.B. Malyshev, P. Goudket, R. Valizadeh
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • C.Z. Antoine
    CEA-IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • O. Azzolini, E. Chyhyrynets, G. Keppel, C. Pira, F. Stivanello
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro (PD), Italy
  • G. Burt, D.J. Seal, D.A. Turner
    Cockcroft Institute, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
  • G. Burt, B.S. Sian
    Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
  • O. Kugeler, D.B. Tikhonov
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  • S.B. Leith, A.O. Sezgin, M. Vogel
    University Siegen, Siegen, Germany
  • A. Medvids, P. Onufrijevs
    Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia
  • R. Ries, E. Seiler
    Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
  • B.S. Sian
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • A. Sublet, G. Vandoni, L. Vega Cid, W. Venturini Delsolaro, P. Vidal Garcia
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
  • D.A. Turner
    STFC/DL, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  Funding: European Commission’s ARIES collaboration H2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant Agreement no. 730871
An international collaboration of research teams from CEA (France), CERN (Switzerland), INFN/LNL (Italy), HZB and USI (Germany), IEE (Slovakia), RTU (Latvia) and STFC/DL (UK), are working together on better understanding of how to improve the properties of superconducting thin films (ScTF) for RF cavities. The collaboration has been formed as WP15 in the H2020 ARIES project funded by EC. The systematic study of ScTF covers: Cu substrate polishing with different techniques (EP, SUBU, EP+SUBU, tumbling, laser), Nb, NbN, Nb3Sn and SIS film deposition and characterisation, Laser post deposition treatments, DC magnetisation characterisation, application of all obtained knowledge on polishing, deposition and characterisation, Laser post deposition treatments, DC magnetisation characterisation, application to the QPR samples for testing the films at RF conditions. The preparation, deposition and characterisation of each sample involves 3-5 partners enhancing the capability of each other and resulting in a more complete analysis of each film. The talk will give an overview of the collaborative research and will be an introduction to the detailed talks given by the team members.
 
poster icon Poster WEPFDV007 [2.008 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPFDV007  
About • Received ※ 19 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 12 February 2022 — Issue date; ※ 10 April 2022  
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WEPFDV008 Thermal Conductivity of Electroplated Copper Onto Bulk Niobium at Cryogenic Temperatures 576
 
  • G. Ciovati, P. Dhakal
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • I.P. Parajuli, M.R.P. Walive Pathiranage
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  • T. Saeki
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  Funding: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.
Superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of high-purity bulk niobium are widely used in modern particle accelerators. The development of metallic outer coatings with high thermal conductivity would have a beneficial impact in terms of improved thermal stability, reduced material cost and for the development of conduction-cooled, cryogenic-free SRF cavities. Several high-purity, fine-grain Nb samples have been coated with 2’4 mm thick copper by electroplating. Measurements of the thermal conductivity of the bimetallic Nb/Cu samples in the range 2’7 K showed values of the order of 1 kW/(m K) at 4.3 K. Very good adhesion between copper and niobium was achieved by depositing a thin Cu layer by cold spray on the niobium, prior to electroplating the bulk Cu layer.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPFDV008  
About • Received ※ 17 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 10 September 2021 — Issue date; ※ 01 March 2022  
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WEPFDV010 Structural Investigation of Nitrogen-Doped Niobium for SRF Cavities 581
 
  • M. Major, L. Alff, M. Arnold, J. Conrad, S. Flege, R. Grewe, N. Pietralla
    TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
 
  Funding: Work supported by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) through grant 05H18RDRB2 and the German Research Foundation (DFG) via the AccelencE Research Training Group (GRK 2128).
Niobium is the standard material for superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for particle acceleration. Superconducting materials with higher critical temperature or higher critical magnetic field allow cavities to work at higher operating temperatures or higher accelerating fields, respectively. One direction of search for new materials with better properties is the modification of bulk niobium by nitrogen doping. In the Nb-N phase diagram, the cubic delta-phase of NbN has the highest critical temperature. Niobium samples were annealed and doped with nitrogen in the high-temperature furnace at TU Darmstadt and investigated at its Materials Research Department with respect to structural modifications. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the appearance of Nb4N3 and Nb2N phases on the surface of the samples. A single cell cavity was annealed under optimized doping conditions. The test samples treated together with the cavity showed almost single Nb4N3 phase. XRD pole figures also showed grain growth during sample annealing.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPFDV010  
About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Revised ※ 18 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 17 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 19 November 2021
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THOTEV07 Industrial X-Ray Tomographie as a Tool for Shape and Integrity Control of SRF Cavities 725
 
  • H.-W. Glock, J. Knobloch, A. Neumann, A.V. Vélez
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
 
  Industrial X-ray tomography offers the possibility to capture the entire inner and outer shape of an SRF cavity, providing also insights in weld quality and material defects. As a non-contact method this is especially attractive to investigate shape properties of fully processed and closed cavities. A drawback is the inherently strong X-ray damping of niobium, which causes the demand for intense hard X-rays, typically beyond the capabilities of dc-X-ray-tubes. This also limits the accuracy of material borders found by the tomographic inversion. To illustrate both capabilities and limitations, results of X-ray tomography investigations using three different cavities are reported, also describing the fundamental parameters and the hard- and software demands of the technology. We also discuss the non-trivial transferring of tomography data into RF simulation tools.  
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slides icon Slides THOTEV07 [9.574 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-THOTEV07  
About • Received ※ 30 June 2021 — Revised ※ 03 January 2022 — Accepted ※ 03 March 2022 — Issue date ※ 08 April 2022
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THPFDV001 Status of the New Quadrupole Resonator for SRF R&D 751
 
  • R. Monroy-Villa, W. Hillert, M. Wenskat
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  • S. Gorgi Zadeh, P. Putek
    Rostock University, Faculty of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Rostock, Germany
  • M. Lemke, R. Monroy-Villa, D. Reschke, M. Röhling, J.H. Thie
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  A basic understanding of the properties of SRF samples under surface treatments would aid in the development of consistent theories. To study the RF properties of such samples under realistic superconducting-cavity-like conditions, a test device called Quadrupole Resonator (QPR) was fabricated. In this publication we report the status of the QPR at Universität Hamburg in collaboration with DESY. Our device is based on the QPRs operated at CERN and at HZB, and its design will allow for testing samples at temperatures between 2 K and 8 K, under magnetic fields up to 120 mT and with operating frequencies of 433 MHz, 866 MHz and 1300 MHz. Fabrication tolerance studies on the electromagnetic field distributions and simulations of the static detuning of the device, together with the commissioning report and the ongoing surface treatment, will be presented.  
poster icon Poster THPFDV001 [1.069 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-THPFDV001  
About • Received ※ 27 June 2021 — Revised ※ 23 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 23 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 29 April 2022
Cite • reference for this paper using ※ BibTeX, ※ LaTeX, ※ Text/Word, ※ RIS, ※ EndNote (xml)  
 
THPFDV002 The Influence of Irradiation on the Current Carrying Phenomena in HTc Multilayered Superconductors 756
 
  • J. Sosnowski
    NCBJ, Świerk/Otwock, Poland
 
  Paper is devoted to analysis of the influence of irradiation arising in SRF accelerators on critical current phenomena of HTc multilayered superconductors. Impact of size and concentration of created then nano-defects on current-voltage characteristics and critical current of HTc superconductors as function of the magnetic field and temperature will be investigated. It will be studied basing on analysis of interaction of the magnetic pancake vortices with arising during irradiation defects, for various strengths of capturing. The comparison of the model with experimental data will be given too. The dynamic losses dependent on critical current, generated in the superconducting current leads for varying current, will be considered. Analysis of the dynamic magnetic induction distribution inside superconducting lead for time varying current in the cycle will be given and Joule losses estimated. As the result it has been established the hysteresis behavior of the losses in current leads. The changes of losses have been observed for first and following current increase, which effect should have meaning during multiply charging of the superconducting electromagnets.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-THPFDV002  
About • Received ※ 16 June 2021 — Revised ※ 10 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 23 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 02 March 2022
Cite • reference for this paper using ※ BibTeX, ※ LaTeX, ※ Text/Word, ※ RIS, ※ EndNote (xml)  
 
THPFDV003 SIMS Investigation of Furnace Baked Nb 761
 
  • E.M. Lechner, M.J. Kelley, A.D. Palczewski, C.E. Reece
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • J.W. Angle, M.J. Kelley
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA
 
  Funding: U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177
Results recently published by Ito et al. showed that "furnace baking" Nb SRF cavities after electropolishing yields high quality factors and anti-Q-slopes resembling that of N doped cavities. Small Nb samples were prepared following the recipe outlined by Ito. These samples were measured by SIMS to examine impurity contributions to the RF penetration layer. These diffusion profiles are modeled, and their consequences on RF properties discussed.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-THPFDV003  
About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 24 November 2021 — Issue date; ※ 15 May 2022  
Cite • reference for this paper using ※ BibTeX, ※ LaTeX, ※ Text/Word, ※ RIS, ※ EndNote (xml)  
 
THPFDV005 Superconducting RF Performance of Cornell 500 MHz N-Doped B-Cell SRF Cavitiy 764
 
  • M. Ge, T. Gruber, A.T. Holic, M. Liepe, J. Sears
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  The Cornell SRF group is working on rebuilding a 500 MHz B-cell cryomodule (CRYO-2 BB1-5) as a spared cryomodule for the operation of the CESR ring. To minimize BCS surface resistance, achieve a high quality-factor (Q0), and increase maximum fields, we prepared the cavity’s surface with electropolishing and performed a 2/6 N2-doping. In this work, we report 4.2 K and 2 K cavity test results with detailed surface resistance analysis, showing improved performance, including significant higher fields.  
poster icon Poster THPFDV005 [0.712 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-THPFDV005  
About • Received ※ 05 July 2021 — Revised ※ 10 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 22 April 2022
Cite • reference for this paper using ※ BibTeX, ※ LaTeX, ※ Text/Word, ※ RIS, ※ EndNote (xml)  
 
THPFDV006 Seebeck Coefficient Measurement at Cryogenic Temperatures for the LCLS-II HE Project 768
 
  • M. Ge, A.T. Holic, M. Liepe, J. Sears
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Reducing thermoelectric currents during cooldown is important to maintain high-quality factors (Q0) of the cavities in the LCLS-II HE cryomodules. The temperature-dependent Seebeck coefficients of the materials used in the cryomodules are needed for quantitative estimations of thermoelectric currents. In this work, we present a setup for cryogenic Seebeck coefficient measurements as well as the measured Seebeck coefficients of high-pure niobium at cryogenic temperatures between 4K and 200K.  
poster icon Poster THPFDV006 [0.505 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-THPFDV006  
About • Received ※ 29 June 2021 — Revised ※ 10 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 26 November 2021
Cite • reference for this paper using ※ BibTeX, ※ LaTeX, ※ Text/Word, ※ RIS, ※ EndNote (xml)  
 
THPFDV008 Research on Ceramic for RF Window 771
 
  • Y. Yamamoto, K. Nakamura, H. Yoshizumi
    Kyocera Corporation, Corporate Fine Ceramics Group, Kyoto, Japan
  • S. Michizono, Y. Yamamoto
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  Kyocera and KEK had started joint research on developing materials that satisfy the required characteristics as RF window materials. In previous studies, AO479B was developed, and it has been applied to some products. However, AO479B has size limitation in applying to products. Recently, large RF windows is demanded. Therefore, we have developed a new material AO479U which is designed to be applied to products regardless of the product size. In this report, the characteristics of AO479U was evaluated by comparing it with other materials, including the presence or absence of TiN coating. In order to clarify how the differences of materials or manufacturing processes contributes to heat generation and multipactor discharge occurring in RF windows, we measured important characteristics as RF window materials (relative permittivity, dielectric loss tangent, surface resistance, volume resistivity, secondary electron emission coefficient, and TiN thickness), and investigated the relationships of them and materials or manufacturing processes.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-THPFDV008  
About • Received ※ 18 June 2021 — Revised ※ 06 December 2021 — Accepted ※ 28 February 2022 — Issue date ※ 01 May 2022
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FROFDV01 Systematic Investigation of Mid-T Furnace Baking for High-Q Performance 881
 
  • H. Ito, A. Araki, K. Umemori
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • K. Takahashi
    Sokendai, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  We report on an investigation of the effect of a new baking process called "furnace baking" on the quality factor. Furnace baking is performed as the final step of the cavity surface treatment; the cavities are heated in a vacuum furnace in a temperature range of 200-800C for 3 h, followed by high-pressure rinsing and radio-frequency measurement. We find the anti-Q-slope for cavities furnace-baked at a temperature range of 250 to 400C and a reduction in the residual resistance for all cavities. In particular, an extremely high Q value of 5·1010 at 16 MV/m and 2.0 K is obtained for cavities furnace-baked at 300C.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-FROFDV01  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 24 February 2022 — Issue date; ※ 30 April 2022  
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FROFDV02
A Novel Approach to Producing High Gradient and Q0 Cavities in Non-Ideal Furnaces  
 
  • A.D. Palczewski, P. Dhakal, C.E. Reece
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • D. Gonnella
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Funding: Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
Since the discovery of nitrogen doping in 2014, infusion in 2017, "mid-T bakes in 2018; the reproducibility in both Q0 and gradient has been proven to be highly variable between facilities and even within the same furnace within a facility*. Multiple studies have pointed to possible contamination from pumps, non-Molybdenum frame outgassing within a hot zone, gas purity issues, and cross-contamination between furnace runs. The traditional approach to mitigating these effects is using niobium furnace caps, high-temperature furnace burnout runs, and expensive pump replacements. We will show multiple examples of a novel approach to increasing Q0 and Q0+Eacc, using a simple treatment after a furnace treatment or doping + light EP. We will also outline the possible workflows using this new technique in production.
*Pashupati Dhakal, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physo.2020.100034, and enclosed citations.
 
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FROFDV03 Investigating the Anomalous Frequency Variations Near Tc of Nb SRF Cavities 885
 
  • D. Bafia, M. Checchin, A. Grassellino, A.S. Romanenko
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • J. Zasadzinski
    IIT, Chicago, Illinois, USA
 
  We report recent studies on the anomalous frequency variations of 1.3 GHz Nb SRF cavities near the transition temperature Tc and use them to investigate the underlying physics of state-of-the-art surface treatments. One such feature, a dip in frequency, correlates directly with the quality factor at 16 MV/m and the anti-Q slope that arise in cavities with dilute concentrations of N interstitial in the RF layer achieved via N-doping and mid temperature baking. For N interstitial, we find that the dip magnitude and Tc follow exponential relationships with the electronic mean free path. We present the first observation of the frequency dip near Tc in a cavity baked at 200 C in-situ for 11 hours, which is concurrent with the anti-Q slope, and may be driven by oxygen diffused from the native oxide, thus suggesting the possibility of ‘‘O-doping.’’ We also investigate the conductivities of two cavities that display different resonant frequency behaviors near Tc and suggest that the anti-Q slope and frequency dip phenomena may occur in the presence of interstitial N or possibly O that inhibit the formation of proximity coupled Nb nano-hydrides.  
slides icon Slides FROFDV03 [1.035 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-FROFDV03  
About • Received ※ 25 June 2021 — Revised ※ 13 September 2021 — Accepted ※ 18 December 2021 — Issue date ※ 28 April 2022
Cite • reference for this paper using ※ BibTeX, ※ LaTeX, ※ Text/Word, ※ RIS, ※ EndNote (xml)  
 
FROFDV04
9MeV Electron Irradiation on Nb Samples and 1.3GHz SRF Cavity  
 
  • T. Spina, A. Grassellino, A.S. Romanenko
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  To enhance bulk Nb RF cavity performances at high accelerating field it is important to prevent precipitates formation. Doping and heat treatments can mitigate such effect and the most accredited theory is based on the presence of proximity-coupled niobium hydrides [*]. Irradiation can induce vacancy-2H complexes [**] and in this study, the effects of 9MeV electrons on Nb samples and cavity up to fluences of 1.8x1021e/m2 are investigated. The size and density changes of micro-hydrides before and after irradiation was measured by cryo-laser confocal microscopy and a new analytic technique based on computer vision has been used. A strong reduction in hydrides size was found after irradiation and the hydrides formation temperature was shifted to lower values suggesting a reduction in both the activation energy barrier and the critical radius. We conclude that electron irradiation can indeed prevent the formation of large hydrides in H-loaded Nb bulk sample. 1.3GHz Nb cavity has also been submitted to electron irradiation treatment in stationary mode and Q vs E curves and T-map measurements before and after irradiations recorded the changes induced by radiation on cavity performance.
[*] A. Romanenko et al., Supercond. Sci. Technol. 26 (2013) 035003
[**]J. Cížek et al. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 79 (2009) 054108
 
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FROFDV05
Efforts Towards First Applications of Nb3Sn SRF Cavities  
 
  • S. Posen
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Research efforts on Nb3Sn SRF cavities have led to substantial advancements over the last decade, including a severalfold increase in maximum gradient with high Q0 at 4 K and scaling up to large structures typically used in applications. In this talk, we overview recent performance advancements achieved in Nb3Sn research and development efforts and describe some first forays into applications for Nb3Sn SRF cavities.  
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slides icon Slides FROFDV05 [2.368 MB]  
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FROFDV06 Synthesis of Nb and Alternative Superconducting Film to Nb for SRF Cavity as Single Layer 893
 
  • R. Valizadeh, P. Goudket, A.N. Hannah, O.B. Malyshev
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • C.Z. Antoine
    CEA-DRF-IRFU, France
  • C.Z. Antoine
    CEA-IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • E. Chyhyrynets, C. Pira
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro (PD), Italy
  • P. Goudket, O.B. Malyshev, D.J. Seal, B.S. Sian, D.A. Turner
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • O. Kugeler, D.B. Tikhonov
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  • S.B. Leith, A.O. Sezgin, M. Vogel
    University Siegen, Siegen, Germany
  • A. Medvids, P. Onufrijevs
    Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia
  • D.J. Seal, B.S. Sian, D.A. Turner
    Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
  • G.B.G. Stenning
    STFC/RAL/ISIS, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, United Kingdom
  • A. Sublet, G. Vandoni, L. Vega Cid, W. Venturini Delsolaro, P. Vidal Garcia
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
 
  "Bulk niobium (Nb) has been the material of choice for superconducting RF (SRF) cavities but for further improvement in cavity RF performance, one may have to turn to films of Nb and to other superconducting materials deposited on copper as thermal and mechanical support. Other materials known as A15, such as Nb3Sn or V3Si and B1 such as NbTiN and NbN are much easier to synthesise in thin films rather than being made as bulk cavity. The potential benefits of using materials other than Nb would be a higher Tc, a potentially higher critical held Hc, leading to potentially significant cryogenics cost reduction if the cavity operation temperature is 4.2 K or higher. We report on optimising deposition parameters and effect of substrate treatment prior to deposition for successful synthesising of Nb and the alternative superconducting thin film with high superconducting properties (Tc and Hsh) on flat substrates and QPR samples in single layer. The DC and RF SC properties have been tested using PPMS and QPR measurements. This work is part of the H2020 ARIES collaboration. We further report on preparation of RF cavities employing these alternative material for future cavity production."  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-FROFDV06  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 05 January 2022 — Issue date; ※ 28 April 2022  
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FROFDV07
Material Engineering of ALD- Deposited Multilayer to Improve the Superconducting Performances of RF Cavities Under Intense RF Fields  
 
  • Y. Kalboussi
    CEA, DES-ISAS-DM2S, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • C.Z. Antoine, B. Delatte
    CEA-IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • S. Bira, D. Longuevergne
    Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS/IN2P3, IJCLab, Orsay, France
  • D. Dragoe
    ICMMO, Orsay, France
  • J. Leroy
    CEA/DRF/IRAMIS/SIS2M, Gif sur Yvette, France
  • Th. Proslier
    CEA-DRF-IRFU, France
  • S. Tusseau-Nenez
    Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France
 
  We are exploring an original approach to improve the performance of bulk Niobium RF cavities through surface engineering with ALD superconducting multilayer capable of screening efficiently the magnetic fields and therefore inhibiting vortices penetration in Niobium cavities. As a first step for the multilayer, we aim at replacing the deleterious niobium native oxide by a clean interface between an insulator synthesized by ALD (Al2O3, Y2O3 and MgO) and the Niobium metal. To that end I will present the results obtained on both flat niobium samples and 1.3 GHz elliptical cavities. Our study shows that ALD deposited films are a good diffusion barrier, resist to thermal treatments and reduce significantly the presence of the niobium native oxide on the surface. Low SEY material such as TiN was also deposited on top of the insulator film to reduce multipacting phenomena. RF test on ALD coated cavities shows already a slight improvement of the superconducting performances. In parallel we started synthesizing superconducting NbTiN alloys by ALD. I will present preliminary results on the superconducting properties of NbTiN films grown on AlN by ALD with various compositions on Nbiobium.  
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