Keyword: ECR
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SUPCAV002 Ex-Situ Investigation of the Effects of Heating Rate on the Recrystallization in Rolled Polycrystals of High-Purity Niobium cavity, niobium, SRF, electron 1
  • Z.L. Thune, N. Fleming, C. McKinney, E.M. Nicometo
    MSU, East Lansing, USA
  • S. Balachandran
    NHMFL, Tallahassee, Florida, USA
  • T.R. Bieler
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  Funding: US Dept. of Energy award DE-SC0009960
The consistent production of high-purity niobium cavities for superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) applications is crucial for enabling improvements in accelerator performance. Recent work has shown that dislocations and grain boundaries trap magnetic flux which dissipates energy and degrades cavity performance. We hypothesize that the current heating rate used in production is too slow and therefore facilitates recovery rather than recrystallization. Recovery, unlike recrystallization, does not reduce the number of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) that are strongly correlated to trapped magnetic flux. Using excess high-purity niobium saved from the production of a cavity, the material was divided into two groups and rolled to ~30% reduction with half rolled parallel to the original rolling direction, and the other half rolled perpendicular. To examine the effect of heating rate, samples were encapsulated in quartz tubes and placed into either a preheated furnace or a cold furnace to allow for heat treatments at different rates. Then using ex-situ electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping, the extent of recrystallization was determined.
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About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Revised ※ 31 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 16 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 20 February 2022
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SUPCAV014 Design and Simulation of 500 MHz Single Cell Superconducting Cavity cavity, superconducting-cavity, HOM, simulation 46
  • Y.B. Sun, W. Ma
    Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
  • L.G. Liu
    SSRF, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  • L. Lu, L. Yang, Z. Zhang
    IMP/CAS, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China
  Funding: Work supported by Shenzhen Development and Reform Commis-sion
The Shenzhen Industrial Synchrotron Radiation Light Source is a fourth-generation medium-energy light source with a 3GeV storage ring electron energy and an emit-tance less than 100 pm·rad. In order to ensure the long-term stable and efficient operation of the light source, a new type of 500 MHz single-cell superconducting cavity was designed in this study to be used as a pre-research superconducting cavity for the Light Source. The 500 MHz superconducting cavity has a large beam aperture and low high order modes (HOMs) impedance, which can be used in accelerators with larger currents. In this design, we simply adopted the same design scheme as the KEKB-type and CESR-type superconducting cavity. Using CST electromagnetic field simulation software to calculate and simulate the characteristics of the cavity, the results show that the designed 500 MHz single-cell cavity can meet the requirements of a high acceleration gradient, a high r/Q value, and a low peak surface field.
poster icon Poster SUPCAV014 [0.420 MB]  
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About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 07 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 12 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 05 May 2022
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SUPFDV003 Effect of Mean Free Path on Nonlinear Losses of Trapped Vortices Driven by a RF Field Field cavity, radio-frequency, linear-dynamics, simulation 67
  • M.R.P. Walive Pathiranage, A.V. Gurevich
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  Funding: This work was supported by NSF under Grants PHY 100614-010 and PHY 1734075, and by DOE under Grant DE-SC 100387-020.
We report extensive numerical simulations on nonlinear dynamics of a trapped elastic vortex under rf field, and its dependence on electron mean free path li. Our calculations of the field-dependent residual surface resistance Ri(H) take into account the vortex line tension, the linear Bardeen-Stephen viscous drag and random distributions of pinning centers. We showed that Ri(H) decreases significantly at small fields as the material gets dirtier while showing field independent behavior at higher fields for clean and dirty limit. At low frequencies Ri(H) increases smoothly with the field amplitude at small H and levels off at higher fields. The mean free path dependency of viscosity and pinning strength can result in a nonmonotonic mean free path dependence of Ri, which decreases with li at higher fields and weak pinning strength.
poster icon Poster SUPFDV003 [1.339 MB]  
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About • Received ※ 20 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 19 December 2021 — Issue date; ※ 09 April 2022  
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SUPFDV009 Thermal Annealing of Sputtered Nb3Sn and V3Si Thin Films for Superconducting RF Cavities SRF, cavity, radio-frequency, target 82
  • K. Howard, M. Liepe, Z. Sun
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  Funding: U.S. National Science Foundation under Award PHY-1549132, the Center for Bright Beams and Cornell Center for Materials Research Shared Facilities supported through the NSF MRSEC program (DMR-1719875)
Nb3Sn and V3Si thin films are alternative material candidates for the next-generation of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. However, past sputtered films suffer from stoichiometry and strain issues during deposition and post annealing. As such, we aim to explore the structural and chemical effects of thermal annealing, both in-situ and post-sputtering, on DC-sputtered Nb3Sn and V3Si with varying thickness on Nb or Cu substrates. We successfully enabled recrystallization of 100 nm thin Nb3Sn films with stoichiometric and strain-free grains at 950 C annealing. For 2 um films, we observed removal of strain and slight increase in grain size with increasing temperature. A phase transformation from unstable to stable structure appeared on thick V3Si samples, while we observed significant Sn loss in thick Nb3Sn films at high temperature anneals. For films on Cu substrates, we observed similar Sn and Si loss during annealing likely due to Cu-Sn and Cu-Si phase generation and subsequent Sn and Si evaporation. These results encourage us to refine our process to obtain high quality films for SRF use.
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About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Revised ※ 06 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 12 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 17 March 2022
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SUPFDV013 HiPIMS NbN Thin Film Development for Use in Multilayer SIS Films site, cathode, lattice, cavity 91
  • S.B. Leith, B. Bai, X. Jiang, M. Vogel
    University Siegen, Siegen, Germany
  • R. Ries, E. Seiler
    Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
  Funding: Authors acknowledge both the EASITrain, Marie Sklodowska-Curie Action (MSCA) Innovative Training Network (ITN), Grant Agreement no. 764879 and the ARIES collaboration, Grant Agreement no. 730871
As part of efforts to improve the performance of SRF cavities, the use of alternative structures, such as superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) film coatings have been extensively investigated. Initial efforts using DC magnetron sputtering (MS) deposited NbN films showed the efficacy of this approach. The use of energetic condensation methods, such as high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), have already improved the performance of Nb thin films for SRF cavities and have already been used for nitride film coatings in the tool industry. In this contribution, the results from the deposition of HiPIMS NbN thin films onto oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) Cu substrates are presented. The effects of the different deposition parameters on the deposited films were elucidated through various characterisation methods, resulting in an optimum coating procedure. This allowed for further comparison between the HiPIMS NbN films and the previously presented DC MS NbN films. The results indicate the improvements offered by HiPIMS deposition, most notably, the significant increase in the entry field, and its applicability to the deposition of SIS films on Cu.
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About • Received ※ 20 June 2021 — Revised ※ 08 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 12 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 25 October 2021
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SUPTEV003 Cu/Nb QPR Surface Preparation Protocol in the Framework of ARIES Project SRF, superconductivity, cavity, framework 121
  • E. Chyhyrynets, O. Azzolini, R. Caforio, V.A. Garcia Diaz, G. Keppel, C. Pira, F. Stivanello
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro (PD), Italy
  Funding: Work supported by the INFN CSNV experiment TEFEN. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Pro-gramme under Grant Agreement no. 730871.
The Quadrupole Resonator is a powerful tool for SRF R&D on thin films. It allows to perform Q vs E measurements on flat sample rather than a curved surface of a cavity. For the investigation of SC coatings on copper substrates, e-beam welded Cu/Nb samples have been prepared for the QPR. However, the presence of two metals, in particular at the interface makes proper polishing of both surfaces challenging due the different chemical behaviour of both components. In this work we present the protocol developed for surface preparation of the coexisting Cu and Nb phases and the results obtained for 5 different samples. The work was performed in the framework of the ARIES project.
poster icon Poster SUPTEV003 [2.506 MB]  
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About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 08 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 12 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 27 September 2021
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TUPFDV001 Effect of Heating Rate on Recrystallization in Rolled Multicrystals of Pure Niobium niobium, cavity, SRF, superconductivity 396
  • T.R. Bieler, D. Kang
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  • R.R. Desconocido, M.T. Sanchez
    UPM, Madrid, Spain
  • N. Fleming, C. McKinney, Z.L. Thune, K. Zheng
    MSU, East Lansing, USA
  • A.A. Kolka
    Niowave, Inc., Lansing, Michigan, USA
  Funding: Supported by US Dept. of Energy award DE-SC0009960.
The performance of niobium cavities in superconducting radiofrequency particle accelerators requires nearly defect-free inner surfaces. While methods to obtain smooth inner surfaces are established, the role of metallurgical defects on superconducting performance is also important, as defects such as grain boundaries and dislocations are known to trap flux that dissipates energy and reduces efficiency. Variable microstructure and texture gradients may account for the observed variability in cavity performance, so it is hypothesized that the texture and microstructure gradients originate from the large grain size of ingots, whose influence is not completely erased in the process of making sheet metal. To examine the evolution of microstructure and texture gradients, the crystal orientations present in a cylindrical cap rolled to ~90% reduction were heat treated. Initial crystal orientations were measured before rolling, and before and after slow and rapid heating rate vacuum heat treatments.
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About • Received ※ 23 June 2021 — Revised ※ 22 February 2022 — Accepted ※ 04 May 2022 — Issue date ※ 16 May 2022
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TUPCAV003 1.3 GHz Seamless Copper Cavities via CNC Spinning Technique cavity, SRF, superconductivity, experiment 440
  • F. Sciarrabba, O. Azzolini, G. Keppel, C. Pira
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro (PD), Italy
  • I. Calliari, R. Guggia, L. Pezzato, M. Pigato
    UNIPD, Padova, Italy
  The spinning process is an established technology for the production of seamless resonant cavities. The main drawback is that, so far, a manual process is adopted, so the quality of the product is subject to the worker’s skills. The Compute Numerical Controlled (CNC) applied to the spinning process can be used to limit this problem and increase the reproducibility and geometrical accuracy of the cavities obtained. This work reports the first 1.3 GHz SRF seamless copper cavities produced by CNC spinning at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro of INFN. For this purpose, metrological analysis were conducted to verify the geometrical accuracy of the cavities after different steps of forming and thermal treatments; axial profile and wall thickness measurements were carried out, investigating different zones of the cavity profile. The cavities were also characterized through mechanical and microstructural analysis, to identify the effect of the automatic forming process applied to the production process of the 1.3 GHz SRF seamless copper cavities.  
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About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 12 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 23 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 24 December 2021
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WEPFDV004 A New Model for Q-Slope in SRF Cavities: RF Heating at Multiple Josephson Junctions at Weakly Linked Grain Boundaries or Dislocations cavity, SRF, data-analysis, electron 556
  • K. Saito
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • K. Saito
    FRIB, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  Several models are already proposed for Q-slopes in SRF cavity performance, medium field Q-slope (MFQS), high field Q-slope (HFQS). However, these does not explain both in a way unified. Here, a new model by multiple Josephson junctions on weakly linked grain boundaries or dislocations is proposed for the unified explanation. This model suggests two kind of junctions: ceramic like one and weak superconductor one. If plotted the field vs. RF power dissipation, an increase of RF loss is remarkably observed in proportional to the cube of fields, on both BCP’ed and EP’ed cavity (MFQS). An exponential RF dissipation is often observed at high fields for BCP’ed cavity (HFQS). If supposed the number of J-junctions linearly increases with the fields (this is explained by the flux quantum penetration condition), these behaviors are easily explained. In addition, this model has a potential to explain the anti-Q slope behavior observed in Nitrogen doped or mid-temperature baked cavity. In this paper, this model will be explained, then several data analysis results will be presented.  
poster icon Poster WEPFDV004 [2.196 MB]  
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About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 11 November 2021 — Issue date; ※ 16 May 2022  
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WEPCAV001 Study of the Niobium Oxide Structure and Microscopic Effect of Plasma Processing on the Niobium Surface plasma, niobium, cavity, background 585
  • B. Giaccone, M. Martinello
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • B. Giaccone, J. Zasadzinski
    IIT, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  A study of the niobium oxide structure is presented here, with particular focus on the niobium suboxides. Multiple steps of argon sputtering and XPS measurements were carried out until the metal surface was exposed. The sample was then exposed to air and the oxide regrowth was studied. In addition, three Nb samples prepared with different surface treatments were studied before and after being subjected to plasma processing. The scope is investigating the microscopic effect that the reactive oxygen contained in the glow discharge may have on the niobium surface. This study suggests that the Nb2O5 thickness may increase, although no negative change in the cavity performance is measured since the pentoxide is a dielectric.  
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About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Revised ※ 13 September 2021 — Accepted ※ 13 January 2022 — Issue date ※ 16 May 2022
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WEOCAV04 Optimization of a Traveling Wave Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavity for Upgrading the International Linear Collider cavity, multipactoring, niobium, GUI 694
  • V.D. Shemelin
    Valery D Shemelin, Freeville, USA
  • H. Padamsee
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • H. Padamsee, V.P. Yakovlev
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  The Standing Wave TESLA Niobium-based structure is limited to a gradient of about 50 MV/m by the critical RF magnetic field. To break through this barrier, we explore the option of Niobium-based traveling wave (TW) structures. Optimization of TW structures was done taking into account experimentally known limiting electric and magnetic fields. It is shown that a TW structure can have an accelerating gradient above 70 MeV/m that is about 1.5 times higher than contemporary standing wave structures with the same critical magnetic field. The other benefit of TW structures shown is R/Q about 2 times higher than TESLA structure that reduces 2 times the dynamic heat load. A method is proposed how to make TW structures multipactor-free. Some design proposals can be realized to facilitate fabrication. Further increase of the real-estate gradient (equivalent to 80 MV/m active gradient) is also possible by increasing the length of the accelerating structure because of higher group velocity and cell-to-cell coupling. Realization of this work opens paths to ILC energy upgrades beyond 1 TeV to 3 TeV in competition with CLIC. The paper will discuss corresponding opportunities and challenges.  
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About • Received ※ 15 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 24 October 2021 — Issue date; ※ 16 May 2022  
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THPFDV002 The Influence of Irradiation on the Current Carrying Phenomena in HTc Multilayered Superconductors induction, radiation, lattice, superconductivity 756
  • J. Sosnowski
    NCBJ, Świerk/Otwock, Poland
  Paper is devoted to analysis of the influence of irradiation arising in SRF accelerators on critical current phenomena of HTc multilayered superconductors. Impact of size and concentration of created then nano-defects on current-voltage characteristics and critical current of HTc superconductors as function of the magnetic field and temperature will be investigated. It will be studied basing on analysis of interaction of the magnetic pancake vortices with arising during irradiation defects, for various strengths of capturing. The comparison of the model with experimental data will be given too. The dynamic losses dependent on critical current, generated in the superconducting current leads for varying current, will be considered. Analysis of the dynamic magnetic induction distribution inside superconducting lead for time varying current in the cycle will be given and Joule losses estimated. As the result it has been established the hysteresis behavior of the losses in current leads. The changes of losses have been observed for first and following current increase, which effect should have meaning during multiply charging of the superconducting electromagnets.  
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About • Received ※ 16 June 2021 — Revised ※ 10 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 23 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 02 March 2022
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THPTEV016 The Role of Oxygen Concentration in Enabling High Gradients in Niobium SRF Cavities cavity, niobium, SRF, radio-frequency 871
  • D. Bafia, A. Grassellino, A.S. Romanenko
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  We studied the role of O concentration with depth in the performance of Nb SRF cavities. An ensemble of electropolished 1.3 GHz cavities, which initially showed high field Q-slope (HFQS), was subjected to sequential testing and treatment with in-situ low temperature baking at various temperatures. We find that increasing the bake duration causes (i) an increase in the onset of HFQS until it is absent up to quench (ii) a non-monotonic relationship with the quench field (iii) an evolution of the RBCS toward a non-equilibrium behavior that drives anti-Q slope. Our data is qualitatively explained by assuming an O diffusion model and suggests that the mitigation of HFQS that arises from 120°C in-situ LTB is mediated by the diffusion of O from the native oxide which prevents the precipitation of proximity-coupled Nb nano-hydrides, in turn enabling higher quench fields. The decrease in quench field for cavities in which O has been diffused >90 nm from the RF surface may be due to a reduction of the field limit in the SS bilayer structure. We also suggest that the evolution of the RBCS occurs due to the absence of proximity coupled inclusions, bringing about non-equilibrium effects.  
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About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Revised ※ 13 September 2021 — Accepted ※ 13 October 2021 — Issue date ※ 23 November 2021
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FROFDV03 Investigating the Anomalous Frequency Variations Near Tc of Nb SRF Cavities cavity, niobium, SRF, scattering 885
  • D. Bafia, M. Checchin, A. Grassellino, A.S. Romanenko
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • J. Zasadzinski
    IIT, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  We report recent studies on the anomalous frequency variations of 1.3 GHz Nb SRF cavities near the transition temperature Tc and use them to investigate the underlying physics of state-of-the-art surface treatments. One such feature, a dip in frequency, correlates directly with the quality factor at 16 MV/m and the anti-Q slope that arise in cavities with dilute concentrations of N interstitial in the RF layer achieved via N-doping and mid temperature baking. For N interstitial, we find that the dip magnitude and Tc follow exponential relationships with the electronic mean free path. We present the first observation of the frequency dip near Tc in a cavity baked at 200 C in-situ for 11 hours, which is concurrent with the anti-Q slope, and may be driven by oxygen diffused from the native oxide, thus suggesting the possibility of ‘‘O-doping.’’ We also investigate the conductivities of two cavities that display different resonant frequency behaviors near Tc and suggest that the anti-Q slope and frequency dip phenomena may occur in the presence of interstitial N or possibly O that inhibit the formation of proximity coupled Nb nano-hydrides.  
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About • Received ※ 25 June 2021 — Revised ※ 13 September 2021 — Accepted ※ 18 December 2021 — Issue date ※ 28 April 2022
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