Keyword: electron
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SUPCAV002 Ex-Situ Investigation of the Effects of Heating Rate on the Recrystallization in Rolled Polycrystals of High-Purity Niobium ECR, cavity, niobium, SRF 1
 
  • Z.L. Thune, N. Fleming, C. McKinney, E.M. Nicometo
    MSU, East Lansing, USA
  • S. Balachandran
    NHMFL, Tallahassee, Florida, USA
  • T.R. Bieler
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
 
  Funding: US Dept. of Energy award DE-SC0009960
The consistent production of high-purity niobium cavities for superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) applications is crucial for enabling improvements in accelerator performance. Recent work has shown that dislocations and grain boundaries trap magnetic flux which dissipates energy and degrades cavity performance. We hypothesize that the current heating rate used in production is too slow and therefore facilitates recovery rather than recrystallization. Recovery, unlike recrystallization, does not reduce the number of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) that are strongly correlated to trapped magnetic flux. Using excess high-purity niobium saved from the production of a cavity, the material was divided into two groups and rolled to ~30% reduction with half rolled parallel to the original rolling direction, and the other half rolled perpendicular. To examine the effect of heating rate, samples were encapsulated in quartz tubes and placed into either a preheated furnace or a cold furnace to allow for heat treatments at different rates. Then using ex-situ electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping, the extent of recrystallization was determined.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPCAV002  
About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Revised ※ 31 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 16 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 20 February 2022
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SUPCAV010 Design of Third-Harmonic Superconducting Cavity for Shen-Zhen Industry Synchrotyon Radiation Source7 cavity, superconducting-cavity, acceleration, accelerating-gradient 32
 
  • N. Yuan, L. Lu, W. Ma
    Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
  • L.G. Liu
    SINAP, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  • L. Yang, Z. Zhang
    IMP/CAS, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China
 
  Shenzhen industry synchrotron radiation source is the fourth generation of medium energy light source with beam energy of 3GeV. It has the characteristics of low emittance and high brightness. In the design, the beam lifetime is one of the most important parameters. The main factor that affects its beam lifetime is the scattering of electron collisions inside the beam. To solve this problem, a harmonic radio frequency system is used. The third harmonic superconducting elliptical cavity is de-signed to stretch beam length to improve beam quality and beam lifetime. The present work is mainly about the shape optimization of 1.5 GHz 2-cell third harmonic superconducting elliptical cavity. Firstly, the principle of harmonic cavity in dual high frequency system is introduced, and the resonant frequency and acceleration gradient of superconducting cavity are given. Then, CST, electromagnetic field simulation software is used to optimize the cavity parameters to obtain the high performance and high frequency parameters that meet the requirements.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPCAV010  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 21 November 2021 — Accepted ※ 18 February 2022 — Issue date ※ 03 May 2022
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SUPCAV011 Third Harmonic Superconductive Cavity for Bunch Lengthening and Beam Lifetime Increase of Sirius Synchrotron Light Source cavity, impedance, synchrotron, beam-loading 37
 
  • I. Carvalho de Almeida, M. Hoffmann Wallner, A. Pontes Barbosa Lima
    CNPEM, Campinas, SP, Brazil
 
  A passive third harmonic superconducting cavity is to be installed at Sirius’ 4th generation synchrotron light source in order to lengthen the bunches and improve beam lifetime, which is dominated by Touschek scattering. A study of optimal bunch lengthening is carried on by enforcing a flat potential well around the synchronous electron and the results are compared to the passive operation case for several shunt impedances and unloaded quality factors based on known operating cavities. To determine the new bunch shape due to beam loading and its length, a full consistent approach is followed by setting the harmonic voltage amplitude equal to the optimum value and calculating the required detune, harmonic phase and synchronous phase for an initial complex form factor, allowing the new distribution to be obtained by an iterative process. For each case analyzed, energy acceptance is obtained through the separatrix in the phase plane and the corresponding lifetime increase ratio is calculated. Input power required after the addition of the harmonic cavity is then estimated.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPCAV011  
About • Received ※ 20 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 15 November 2021 — Issue date; ※ 21 March 2022  
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SUPCAV013 Multipacting Analysis of the Quadripolar Resonator (QPR) at HZB multipactoring, simulation, quadrupole, operation 42
 
  • S. Bira, D. Longuevergne
    Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS/IN2P3, IJCLab, Orsay, France
  • Y. Kalboussi
    CEA-IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • S. Keckert, J. Knobloch, O. Kugeler
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  • Th. Proslier
    CEA-DRF-IRFU, France
 
  Multipacting (MP) is a resonating electron discharge, often plaguing radio-frequency (RF) structures, produced by the synchronization of emitted electrons with the RF fields and the electron multiplication at the impact point with the surface structure. The electron multiplication can take place only if the secondary emission yield (SEY, i.e. the number of electrons emitted due to the impact of one incoming electron), , is higher than 1. The SEY value depends strongly on the material and the surface contamination. Multipacting simulations are crucial in high-frenquency (HF) vacuum structures to localize and potentially improve the geometry. In this work, multipacting simulations were carried out on the geometry of the Quadrupole Resonator (QPR) in operation at HZB using the Spark 3D module in Microwave Studio suite (CST). These simulations helped to understand a particular behavior observed during the QPR tests, and furthermore made it possible to suggest enhancement ways in order to limit this phenomenon and facilitate its operation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPCAV013  
About • Received ※ 09 July 2021 — Revised ※ 09 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 09 April 2022 — Issue date ※ 07 May 2022
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SUPCAV016 Studies on the Fundamental Mechanisms of Niobium Electropolishing cavity, niobium, SRF, experiment 50
 
  • E.A.S. Viklund, D.N. Seidman
    NU, Evanston, Illinois, USA
  • L. Grassellino, S. Posen, T.J. Ring
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  To improve the superconducting performance of niobium SRF cavities, electropolishing (EP) with a sulfuric and hydroflouric acid mixture is used. The chemistry of this reaction is complex due to the interactions between diffusion mechanisms, surface oxide structure, and multiple chemical species. Past studies on the EP process have produced a certain set of optimum parameters that have been used successfully for a long time. However, two recent developments have called the efficacy of the existing EP process into question. Since the introduction of nitrogen doping the surface quality of some cavities has been very poor. Also, EP performed at colder than standard temperatures leads to an increase in the cavity performance. To understand these questions, we perform a multivariate study on the EP process using niobium test samples electropolished at different temperatures and potentials. We find that electropolishing at lower potentials leads to rough surface features such as pitting and grain etching. Some of the surface features show similarities to features seen in niobium cavities. The effect of electropolishing temperature is not clear based on the results of this study.  
poster icon Poster SUPCAV016 [2.447 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPCAV016  
About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Revised ※ 21 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 29 September 2021 — Issue date ※ 15 November 2021
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SUPFDV002 Ab Initio Theory of the Impact of Grain Boundaries on the Superconducting Properties of Nb3Sn cavity, SRF, niobium, site 62
 
  • M.M. Kelley, T. Arias, N. Sitaraman
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation under award PHY-1549132, the Center for Bright Beams.
For over 50 years experiments have repeatedly demonstrated that the superconducting performance of Nb3Sn is profoundly sensitive to grain boundaries (GBs), but only recently has a microscopic theory emerged. Here we present the first comprehensive, ab initio study of GBs in Nb3Sn*. While most conventional superconductors, such as Nb, are not significantly impacted by GBs, Nb3Sn is much more sensitive to defects and disorder owing to its short coherence length of ~3 nm. Indeed, experiments suggest a link between GB stoichiometry and the performance of Nb3Sn superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, and mesoscopic simulations point to GBs as a candidate mechanism that lowers the vortex-entry field in Nb3Sn SRF cavities. Our density-functional theory (DFT) calculations on tilt and twist GBs provide direct insight into antisite defect formation near GBs and how local electronic properties are impacted by clean GBs and by GBs with added point defects. Ultimately, we will show how GB composition affects the local Tc around GBs in Nb3Sn to elucidate recent SRF experiments and provide insight on promising modifications to the growth procedure of Nb3Sn to optimize its SRF performance.
[*] Michelle M Kelley et al 2021 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 34 015015
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPFDV002  
About • Received ※ 01 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 02 December 2021 — Issue date; ※ 09 April 2022  
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MOPFDV009 On the Nature of Surface Defects Found in 2/0 N-Doped 9-Cell Cavities cavity, SRF, survey, superconductivity 336
 
  • A. Cano, D. Bafia, A. Grassellino, J. Lee, M. Martinello, A.S. Romanenko, T. Spina, Z-H. Sung
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  In this contribution, we present a systematic study on the microstructure of 1.3 GHz 9-cell TESLA type SRF cavity, processed with 2/0 Nitrogen-doping surface treatment, to explain the premature quench phenomena commonly observed in N-doping treated cavities. The microstructure characterization was carried out using Secondary electron images, advanced metallurgical techniques such as EBSD in parallel with chemical information obtained from spectroscopic techniques. The most remarkable difference is observed in the ends-cavities (1 and 9), which showed roughening of the surface, revealing a series of morphologies associated with Nb cubic phase. The cell-to-cell analysis also showed standard features such as pits with different geometry and distribution, located in grains and grain boundaries. The defects found in this system suggest that the standard electropolishing chemical etching was insufficient to eliminate history defects produced during the manufacture of the cavity, without discarding the role of the impurities, N and O, that could have induced the growth of these morphologies.
H. Padamsee, RF superconductivity (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co., KGaA, Weinheim, 2009)
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-MOPFDV009  
About • Received ※ 29 June 2021 — Revised ※ 11 March 2022 — Accepted ※ 10 May 2022 — Issue date ※ 11 May 2022
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TUOFDV05 Dynamics of RF Dissipation Probed via High-Speed Temperature Mapping cavity, SRF, site, data-acquisition 349
 
  • R.D. Porter, N. Banerjee, M. Liepe
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Recently, Cornell University has developed a new high-speed, high-resolution temperature mapping system that can resolve the time dynamics of RF dissipation, i.e., provide high-speed videos of the surface heating across the entire surface of the cavity. This new powerful tool allows to observe rapid changes in the local RF dissipation, as well as to resolve the dynamics of quenches, field emission processing, and other cavity events, giving new insights into these. This contribution presents the development of this new high-speed temperature mapping system, discusses its commissioning and extensive performance testing (e.g., demonstrating micro-Kelvin resolution), as well as show intriguing high-speed temperature mapping results from multiple Nb3Sn cavities.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUOFDV05  
About • Received ※ 01 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date; ※ 06 February 2022  
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TUPFDV004 A SIMS Approach for the Analysis of Furnace Contamination cavity, niobium, SRF, survey 406
 
  • J.W. Angle, M.J. Kelley
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA
  • M.J. Kelley, E.M. Lechner, A.D. Palczewski, C.E. Reece
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • F.A. Stevie
    NCSU AIF, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
 
  Detection of surface contamination for SRF material is difficult due to the miniscule quantities and near atomic resolution needed. Visual inspection of samples known to have experienced surface contamination were found to have inconsistent nitride coverage after nitrogen doping. EBSD analysis suggest that nitride suppression tends to be most prevalent when deviating from the [111] and [001] zone axes. XPS suggested that tin was present as a contaminant on the surface with SIMS mass spectra also confirming its presence. SIMS depth profiles show a depletion of nitrogen content as well as an increase in car-bon content for contaminated samples.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPFDV004  
About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Revised ※ 11 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 19 February 2022
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TUPFDV006 Dynamics of One-Side Multipactor on Dielectrics simulation, multipactoring, space-charge, resonance 411
 
  • G.V. Romanov
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Breakdown of dielectric RF windows is an important issue for particle accelerators and high-power RF sources. One of the generally considered reasons for the RF windows failure is the multipactor effect on dielectric surface. The multipactor may be responsible for excessive heating of dielectric and discharge of charges that accumulated in ceramic due to secondary emission. In this study the comprehensive self-consistent PIC simulations with space charge effect were performed in order to better understand the dynamic of one-side multipactor development and floating potential on dielectric induced by the emission. The important correlations between the multipactor parameters at saturation and the secondary emission properties of dielectric and the applied RF field parameters were found and are reported in the paper.  
poster icon Poster TUPFDV006 [0.844 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPFDV006  
About • Received ※ 17 June 2021 — Revised ※ 12 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 06 October 2021
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TUPFDV007 Surface Impedance of Nb3Sn and YBa2Cu3O7-δ in High Magnetic Fields impedance, cavity, radio-frequency, framework 416
 
  • N. Pompeo, A. Alimenti, E. Silva, K. Torokhtii
    Università degli Studi Roma III, Roma, Italy
  • G. Celentano, V. Pinto, F. Rizzo
    ENEA C.R. Frascati, Frascati (Roma), Italy
  • R. Flükiger
    UNIGE, Geneva, Switzerland
  • T. Spina
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: This work has been partially carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion consortium, funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-18 and 2019-20 under grant agreement No 633053
New potential rf applications of superconductors emerged with the need to operate in high dc magnetic fields (up to 16 T) where vortex motion dictates the response: the beam screen coating of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) [1] and haloscopes, i.e. rf cavities for the axions detection [2]. However, very few data are available in the required regimes. We present in this work measurements of the surface impedance Z up to 12 T on bulk Nb3Sn and YBCO thin films grown by different techniques. The measurements are performed with a dielectric loaded resonator operating at 15 GHz. We obtained the vortex motion resistivity and extracted the high frequency vortex motion parameters [3]: the depinning frequency, the flux-flow resistivity and the pinning constant, as well as their temperature and field dependences. Substantial differences are highlighted in the high frequency pinning properties of the studied materials, providing useful information on possible improvements in view of applications. A comparison with the results obtained in the microwave frequency range at lower fields (up to 1 T) is given.
[1] S. Calatroni, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 26 p. 3500204, 2016.
[2] D. Alesini et al., Phys. Rev. D, vol. 99, p. 101101, 2019.
[3] J.I. Gittleman and B. Rosenblum, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 16, p.734, 1966.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPFDV007  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date; ※ 02 January 2022  
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TUPFDV010 New Recipes to Optimize the Niobium Oxide Surface From First-Principles Calculations niobium, SRF, cavity, site 426
 
  • N. Sitaraman, T. Arias, Z. Baraissov, M.M. Kelley, D.A. Muller
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • M. Liepe, R.D. Porter, Z. Sun
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Award No. PHY-1549132, the Center for Bright Beams
The properties of niobium oxide are of critical importance for a wide range of topics, from the behavior of nitrogen during infusion treatments, to the nucleation of Nb3Sn, to the superconducting properties of the surface. However, the modeling of the oxide is often much simplified, ignoring the variety of niobium oxide phases and the extremely different properties of these phases in the presence of impurities and defects. We use density functional theory (DFT) to investigate how electrochemical treatments and gas infusion procedures change the properties of niobium oxide, and to investigate how these properties could be optimized for Nb3Sn nucleation and for niobium SRF performance.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPFDV010  
About • Received ※ 01 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 18 November 2021 — Issue date; ※ 22 February 2022  
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TUPCAV014 Design of a Third Harmonic Cavity With Low R/Q for the ESR in BNL EIC cavity, HOM, multipactoring, simulation 469
 
  • B.P. Xiao
    BNL, Upton, New York, USA
 
  Funding: The work is supported by by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the US DOE.
For the electron Storage Ring (ESR) of Brookhaven National Lab Electron Ion Collider (BNL EIC), beam loading is a great concern due to the high beam current together with abortion gap, especially for harmonic cavities due to higher operational frequency. There were attempts to use feedback/feedforward control, using multiple cavities with counter-phasing. A straightforward way to lower beam loading effect is to design a cavity with low R/Q. In this paper, we show such a design for the 3rd harmonic cavity for BNL EIC ESR.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPCAV014  
About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Revised ※ 12 November 2021 — Accepted ※ 11 February 2022 — Issue date ※ 22 February 2022
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TUPCAV015 Performance of a Low Frequency QWR-Based SRF Gun cavity, experiment, simulation, multipactoring 472
 
  • G. Chen, M.V. Fisher, M. Kedzie, M.P. Kelly, T.B. Petersen, T. Reid
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  • X. Lu, P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) electron guns are generally considered to be an effective way of producing beams with high brightness and high repetition rates (or continuous wave). In this work, the 199.6 MHz quarter wave resonator (QWR)-based Wisconsin Free Electron Laser (WiFEL) superconducting electron gun was recently refurbished and tested at Argonne (ANL). The field performance of the e-gun was fully characterized. During this time, multipacting (MP) conditioning was performed for over 20 hours to overcome the hard MP barrier observed in the accelerating voltage range of 8 to 40 kV; the presence of multipacting is expected to operationally important for future e-guns. Here we simulated and studied the effect using CST* Microwave Studio and Particle Studio and compare with the measured data.
* CST Studio Suite, version 2020, https://www.cst.com.
 
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DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPCAV015  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 20 December 2021 — Accepted ※ 22 February 2022 — Issue date ※ 23 March 2022
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WEPFDV004 A New Model for Q-Slope in SRF Cavities: RF Heating at Multiple Josephson Junctions at Weakly Linked Grain Boundaries or Dislocations cavity, SRF, data-analysis, ECR 556
 
  • K. Saito
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • K. Saito
    FRIB, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
 
  Several models are already proposed for Q-slopes in SRF cavity performance, medium field Q-slope (MFQS), high field Q-slope (HFQS). However, these does not explain both in a way unified. Here, a new model by multiple Josephson junctions on weakly linked grain boundaries or dislocations is proposed for the unified explanation. This model suggests two kind of junctions: ceramic like one and weak superconductor one. If plotted the field vs. RF power dissipation, an increase of RF loss is remarkably observed in proportional to the cube of fields, on both BCP’ed and EP’ed cavity (MFQS). An exponential RF dissipation is often observed at high fields for BCP’ed cavity (HFQS). If supposed the number of J-junctions linearly increases with the fields (this is explained by the flux quantum penetration condition), these behaviors are easily explained. In addition, this model has a potential to explain the anti-Q slope behavior observed in Nitrogen doped or mid-temperature baked cavity. In this paper, this model will be explained, then several data analysis results will be presented.  
poster icon Poster WEPFDV004 [2.196 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPFDV004  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 11 November 2021 — Issue date; ※ 16 May 2022  
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WEPFDV006 Activities at NCBJ Towards Development of the Future, Fully-Superconducting, XFEL-Type, RF Electron Gun cathode, gun, cavity, plasma 566
 
  • J. Lorkiewicz, P.J. Czuma, A.M. Kosińska, P. Krawczyk, R.M. Mirowski, R. Nietubyć, M. Staszczak, K. Szamota-Leandersson
    NCBJ, Świerk/Otwock, Poland
  • J.K. Sekutowicz
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Our group at NCBJ works on upgrade of 1.6-cell, SRF, XFEL-type injector in collaboration with DESY and other laboratories. The work is focused on preparation of lead-on-niobium photocathode, its positioning in the gun cavity and on the UV laser system for photocurrent excitation. RF focusing effect was used to minimize the predicted emittance and transverse size of accelerated e- beam. Following beam dynamics computation, it has been proposed that the photocathode be recessed 0.45 mm into the rear wall of the gun cavity. It helps focusing e- beam in its low-energy part. Preparation of sc cathodes of Pb layer on Nb plugs (*, **) is reported, aimed at reaching clean, planar and uniform Pb films. The laser system will consist of commercially available Pharos laser and a 4-th harmonic generator. A gaussian, 300 fs long, 257 nm in wavelength UV pulse will be transformed in time by a pulse stretcher/stacker and in space by pi-shaper. The planned optical system will generate cylindrical photoelectron bunch 2 - 30 ps long and 0.2 - 3 mm wide.
* J. Lorkiewicz et al., Vacuum 179 (2020) 109524
** R. Nietubyc et al., NIM A891 (2018) pp. 78-86
 
poster icon Poster WEPFDV006 [2.014 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPFDV006  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 13 April 2022 — Issue date; ※ 03 May 2022  
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WEPCAV007 Status and First Tests of the Reduced-Beta Capture Cavity for the S-DALINAC cavity, linac, SRF, operation 597
 
  • S. Weih, M. Arnold, M. Dutine, J. Enders, R. Grewe, L.E. Jürgensen, N. Pietralla, F. Schließmann, M. Steinhorst
    TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
 
  Funding: work supported by German research council (DFG) through GRK 2128 ’AccelencE’ and the state of Hesse through the LOEWE research project Nuclear Photonics and the Collaborative Research Cluster ELEMENTS
The superconducting part of the injector section of the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator (S-DALINAC) [1] consisted of one five-cell capture cavity and two 20-cell cavities at 3 GHz resonance frequency. All of them were geometrically adapted to electron velocities with a beta of 1, while the thermionic gun provides electrons with a beta of 0.74. This mismatch resulted in an insufficient capture process for optimum beam quality. For this reason, a new six-cell capture cavity with a beta of 0.86 has been designed and built. Field flatness tuning, a test in the vertical bath cryostat, and a UHV furnace treatment have been carried out in-house to finalize the cavity processing. The cryostat module was adapted to house the new cavity, which has been recently installed. Following the module assembly, a first RF test run was conducted at the S-DALINAC. We report on these latest advancements towards the implementation of the injector upgrade.
* N. Pietralla, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 28, No. 2, 4 (2018).
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPCAV007  
About • Received ※ 20 June 2021 — Revised ※ 22 December 2021 — Accepted ※ 27 February 2022 — Issue date ※ 01 March 2022
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WEPCAV009 Conceptual Design of Balloon Double Spoke Resonator cavity, accelerating-gradient, linac, heavy-ion 604
 
  • Z.Y. Yao, R.E. Laxdal
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  Funding: TRIUMF receives funding via a contribution through the National Research Council Canada.
The balloon variant of the spoke resonator was proposed to eliminate the intensive multipacting (MP) barriers around the operating field level by modifying the local electro-magnetic (EM) fields. TRIUMF has previously reported the prototyping of a 325MHz β=0.3 single spoke resonator (SSR) that demonstrated the principle of the balloon concept. To extend the benefits of the balloon variant to multi-spoke resonators, this paper will report a conceptual design of a 325MHz β=0.5 balloon double spoke resonator (DSR). The consequences from the balloon SSR design, such as the relations between EM field distributions and the field levels of the MP barriers, were applied to the DSR design. Other particular geometry features were also added due to the characters of DSRs. The simulated MP barriers were significantly squeezed to the lower field level compared to a conventional DSR design. Simulation results and conceptual design will be reported.
 
poster icon Poster WEPCAV009 [2.260 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPCAV009  
About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Revised ※ 20 December 2021 — Accepted ※ 01 March 2022 — Issue date ※ 18 April 2022
Cite • reference for this paper using ※ BibTeX, ※ LaTeX, ※ Text/Word, ※ RIS, ※ EndNote (xml)  
 
WEPCAV010 Comparison of Electromagnetic Properties During Fabrication of Copper and Niobium Prototypes of 325 MHz Coaxial Half-Wave Resonator cavity, niobium, experiment, controls 609
 
  • D. Bychanok, V. Bayev, S. Huseu, S.A. Maksimenko, A.E. Sukhotski, E. Vasilevich
    INP BSU, Minsk, Belarus
  • A.V. Butenko, E. Syresin
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia
  • M. Gusarova, M.V. Lalayan, S.M. Polozov
    MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
  • V.S. Petrakovsky, A.I. Pokrovsky, A. Shvedov, S.V. Yurevich
    Physical-Technical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus
  • Y. Tamashevich
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
 
  The main fabrication stages of niobium and copper prototypes of coaxial half-wave resonators (HWR) operating at frequency 325 MHz for the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) injector are presented and discussed. Results of intermediate measurements and electromagnetic properties control for niobium and copper cavities of equivalent geometrical characteristics are compared and analyzed. The comparison of electromagnetic properties of Cu- and Nb-prototypes allows estimating specific features and differences of intermediate "warm" measurements of niobium and copper cavities. The presented results will be used for further development and production of superconductive niobium cavities with a similar design for the NICA-project.  
poster icon Poster WEPCAV010 [3.180 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPCAV010  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 12 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 27 December 2021 — Issue date ※ 05 May 2022
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WEPCAV011 Present Status of the Spoke Cavity Prototyping for the JAEA-ADS Linac cavity, linac, niobium, SRF 612
 
  • J. Tamura, Y. Kondo, F.M. Maekawa, S.I. Meigo, B. Yee-Rendón
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-mura, Japan
  • T. Dohmae, E. Kako, H. Sakai, K. Umemori
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is proposing an accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS) for efficient reduction of high-level radioactive waste generated in nuclear power plants. One of the challenging R¥&Ds for ADS is the reliability of the accelerator. In preparation for the full-scale design of the proton linac for the JAEA-ADS, we are now prototyping a single-spoke cavity for low-beta (around 0.2) beam acceleration. As there is no experience of manufacturing a superconducting spoke cavity in Japan, the cavity prototyping and performance testing are essential to ensure the feasibility of the JAEA-ADS linac. To proceed to an actual cavity fabrication, we have carefully reviewed the fabrication process. And then, we examined the electron-beam welding using niobium test pieces and investigated the welding condition for realizing the smooth underbead. We have finally started the press forming of niobium sheets and the machine work to shape the cavity parts. Now, we are parparing for the electron-beam welding of the shaped niobium parts.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPCAV011  
About • Received ※ 02 July 2021 — Revised ※ 30 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 22 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 28 March 2022
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WEPCAV012 Research and Development of 650 MHz Cavities for CEPC cavity, HOM, cryomodule, SRF 616
 
  • P. Sha, C. Dong, F.S. He, S. Jin, Z.Q. Li, B.Q. Liu, Z.H. Mi, W.M. Pan, J.Y. Zhai, X.Y. Zhang, H.J. Zheng
    IHEP, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the National Key Programme for S&T Research and Development (No. 2016YFA0400400), the Platform of Advanced Photon Source Technology R&D.
650 MHz 2-cell superconducting cavities are proposed for the main ring of the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC). The design, fabrication, surface treatment (buffered chemical polishing) and vertical tests of the cavities with HOM couplers were conducted. The performance of the cavity at 2 K is not affected by the HOM coupler. The maximum intrinsic quality factor of the cavity with the HOM coupler reached 3.1·1010 at 20 MV/m. The vertical test results showed that the fundamental mode external quality factor of all HOM couplers is an order of magnitude larger than quality factor of the cavity. The HOM damping results for the 650 MHz 2-cell cavity were also measured at cryogenic temperature and compared with the simulated and measured results at room temperature. Two 650 MHz 2-cell cavities jacketed have been integrated into a test cryomodule for CEPC. Another 650 MHz 2-cell cavity reached 6·1010 at 22 MV/m after nitrogen infusion. In addition, two 650 MHz 1-cell cavities reached 2.7·1010 at 35 MV/m (fine grain) and 3.6·1010 at 32 MV/m (large grain) after electro-polishing, respectively. In future, electro-polishing will be applied to 650 MHz 2-cell cavity soon.
 
poster icon Poster WEPCAV012 [1.956 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPCAV012  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 07 December 2021 — Issue date; ※ 02 May 2022  
Cite • reference for this paper using ※ BibTeX, ※ LaTeX, ※ Text/Word, ※ RIS, ※ EndNote (xml)  
 
WEPCAV015 Refurbishment and Testing of the WiFEL E-Gun at Argonne cavity, FEL, gun, SRF 627
 
  • T.B. Petersen, G. Chen, M.V. Fisher, M. Kedzie, M.P. Kelly, T. Reid
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  • P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
 
  We report on the refurbishment and testing of the Wisconsin Free Electron Laser (WiFEL) superconducting radiofrequency electron gun with application as an electron injector for DOE accelerators and as a possible future stand-alone tool for electron microscopy. Initial testing at ANL showed the cavity had a very low quality factor, ~107, later determined to be due to contamination some-time since the initial assembly. Following ultrasonic cleaning, high-pressure water rinsing, reassembly, and cold testing, the e-gun has largely recovered with Q~109 and surface electric fields ~15 MV/m. We intend that WiFEL be available as a testbed for future high brightness sources and, in particular, for testing an SRF gun photocathode loader design; an essential, and as yet, not sufficiently proven technology. We report here on many operationally important properties of a quarter-wave SRF cavity for application as an e-gun, including microphonics, pressure sensitivity, and mechanical tuning. New electromagnetic simulations show that the WiFEL cavity shape and design can be optimized in several respects.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPCAV015  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 23 October 2021 — Accepted ※ 07 April 2022 — Issue date ※ 07 April 2022
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WEPTEV011 Development of In-Situ Plasma Cleaning for the FRIB SRF Linac plasma, cavity, cryomodule, operation 657
 
  • C. Zhang, W. Chang, K. Elliott, W. Hartung, S.H. Kim, J.T. Popielarski, K. Saito, T. Xu
    FRIB, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
 
  Development of techniques for in-situ plasma cleaning of quarter-wave and half-wave resonator cryomodules is underway at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University. If SRF cavity performance degradation is seen during future FRIB linac operation, in-situ plasma cleaning may help to restore performance without disassembly of the cavities from the cryomodules for off-line cleaning. A plasma cleaning feasibility study for FRIB cryomodules indicates that plasma cleaning can be done on-line without modifications to the RF couplers or cryomodules. Initial bench measurements have been performed on a FRIB half-wave resonator using noble gases (Ne, Ar), with and without added oxygen gas. The plasma ignition threshold has been measured as a function of gas pressure and composition. Studies of plasma cleaning efficacy are underway. Results will be presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPTEV011  
About • Received ※ 04 July 2021 — Revised ※ 08 November 2021 — Accepted ※ 24 December 2021 — Issue date ※ 01 March 2022
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WEPTEV016 Field Emission Studies During ESS Cryomodule Tests at CEA Saclay cavity, cryomodule, simulation, detector 677
 
  • E. Cenni
    CEA-IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • M. Baudrier, G. Devanz, L. Maurice, O. Piquet
    CEA-DRF-IRFU, France
 
  For the development of efficient superconducting cavi-ties, field emission is an important parasitic phenomena to monitor. A diagnostic system composed of Geiger-Mueller (G-M) probes, NaI(Tl) scintillators are placed in the cryomodule test stand. Collected data is analysed and confronted to particle tracking simulation and electro magnetic shower code. With such systematic analysis we aim to identify the most probable field emission location and hence help to improve clean procedures during as-sembly and operation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPTEV016  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 22 September 2021 — Accepted ※ 18 December 2021 — Issue date ※ 17 May 2022
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WEOTEV03 Toward Stoichiometric and Low-Surface-Roughness Nb3Sn Thin Films via Direct Electrochemical Deposition cavity, SRF, superconductivity, controls 710
 
  • Z. Sun, G. Gaitan, M. Ge, K. Howard, M. Liepe, T.E. Oseroff, R.D. Porter
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • T. Arias, Z. Baraissov, M.M. Kelley, D.A. Muller, J.P. Sethna, N. Sitaraman
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • K.D. Dobson
    University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA
 
  Reducing surface roughness and attaining stoichiometry of Nb3Sn superconducting films are required to push their superheating field to the theoretical limit in SRF cavities. As such, we explore direct electrochemical processes that minimize involving foreign elements to deposit high-quality Sn, Nb, and NbxSn films on Nb and Cu surfaces. These films are then thermally annealed to Nb3Sn. We find that smooth Sn pre-depositions via electroplating on Nb surfaces significantly reduce the average roughness of resultant Nb3Sn to 65 nm, with a dramatic reduction in power intensity at medium special frequencies. Structural and superconducting properties demonstrate a Nb3Sn A15 phase with a stoichiometry of 25 at% Sn. This process is being scaled-up to a 3.9 GHz cavity. Moreover, preliminary results on electroplating on Cu surface show that Nb plating undergoes a slow growth rate while subsequent Sn plating on the plated Nb surface can be controlled with varied thickness. The Nb plating process is currently being optimized.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEOTEV03  
About • Received ※ 09 July 2021 — Revised ※ 09 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 16 January 2022
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THOTEV07 Industrial X-Ray Tomographie as a Tool for Shape and Integrity Control of SRF Cavities cavity, photon, detector, radiation 725
 
  • H.-W. Glock, J. Knobloch, A. Neumann, A.V. Vélez
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
 
  Industrial X-ray tomography offers the possibility to capture the entire inner and outer shape of an SRF cavity, providing also insights in weld quality and material defects. As a non-contact method this is especially attractive to investigate shape properties of fully processed and closed cavities. A drawback is the inherently strong X-ray damping of niobium, which causes the demand for intense hard X-rays, typically beyond the capabilities of dc-X-ray-tubes. This also limits the accuracy of material borders found by the tomographic inversion. To illustrate both capabilities and limitations, results of X-ray tomography investigations using three different cavities are reported, also describing the fundamental parameters and the hard- and software demands of the technology. We also discuss the non-trivial transferring of tomography data into RF simulation tools.  
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slides icon Slides THOTEV07 [9.574 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-THOTEV07  
About • Received ※ 30 June 2021 — Revised ※ 03 January 2022 — Accepted ※ 03 March 2022 — Issue date ※ 08 April 2022
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THPFDV008 Research on Ceramic for RF Window multipactoring, cavity, Windows, operation 771
 
  • Y. Yamamoto, K. Nakamura, H. Yoshizumi
    Kyocera Corporation, Corporate Fine Ceramics Group, Kyoto, Japan
  • S. Michizono, Y. Yamamoto
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  Kyocera and KEK had started joint research on developing materials that satisfy the required characteristics as RF window materials. In previous studies, AO479B was developed, and it has been applied to some products. However, AO479B has size limitation in applying to products. Recently, large RF windows is demanded. Therefore, we have developed a new material AO479U which is designed to be applied to products regardless of the product size. In this report, the characteristics of AO479U was evaluated by comparing it with other materials, including the presence or absence of TiN coating. In order to clarify how the differences of materials or manufacturing processes contributes to heat generation and multipactor discharge occurring in RF windows, we measured important characteristics as RF window materials (relative permittivity, dielectric loss tangent, surface resistance, volume resistivity, secondary electron emission coefficient, and TiN thickness), and investigated the relationships of them and materials or manufacturing processes.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-THPFDV008  
About • Received ※ 18 June 2021 — Revised ※ 06 December 2021 — Accepted ※ 28 February 2022 — Issue date ※ 01 May 2022
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THPTEV004 Surface Oxides on Nb and Nb3Sn Surfaces: Toward a Deeper Understanding SRF, cavity, niobium, superconductivity 836
 
  • Z. Sun, M. Liepe, T.E. Oseroff, R.D. Porter
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • T. Arias, Z. Baraissov, D.A. Muller, N. Sitaraman
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • C. Dukes
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
  • D. Johnson-McDaniel, M. Salim
    CCMR, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Surface oxides on Nb and Nb3Sn SRF cavities, as a thin ’dirty’ layer, could be critical to their performance as suggested by recent theory. Although these oxides have been studied in the past, we intend here to provide a deeper understanding based on a systematic study on coupon samples that have been processed under the different conditions currently used in SRF cavity treatments. Our aim is to obtain a more complete picture of the oxide evolution. This then might help to explain the observed cavity performance variation, and might allow designing a process to achieve a designed, optimized surface with controlled oxides types and thickness. We find that the surface oxides are in amorphous phase that exhibits normal conducting behaviors, while the pentoxide further degrades with time. Also, we observed a thin hydroxide layer on the outermost surface and possibly Nb(OH)x motifs in the bulk. Moreover, distinctive oxide structures were found in Nb3Sn samples from vapor diffusion, electroplating, and sputtering. The semiconducting SnOx appeared through the oxide depth in vapor diffused Nb3Sn, while a ~1 nm SnOx layer merely exists at the outermost surface of electroplated Nb3Sn.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-THPTEV004  
About • Received ※ 09 July 2021 — Revised ※ 11 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 04 November 2021
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