Keyword: multipactoring
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SUPCAV003 Dynamic Temperature Mapping of Nb3Sn Cavities cavity, SRF, site, accelerating-gradient 6
  • R.D. Porter, N. Banerjee, M. Liepe
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  Niobium-3 Tin (Nb3Sn) is the most promising alternative material to niobium for SRF accelerator cavities. The material promises nearly twice the potential accelerating gradients (~100 MV/m in TESLA elliptical cavities), increased quality factors, and 4.2 K operation. Current state of the art Nb3Sn cavities reach quality factors of 2 x 1010 at 4.2 K and have reached 24 MV/m. Determining the cause of the premature field limitation is the topic of ongoing research. Cornell University has recently developed a high-speed temperature mapping system that can examine cavity quench mechanisms in never before achieved ways. Here we present high-speed temperature map results of Nb3Sn cavities and examine the quench mechanism and dynamic heating. We show an initial multipacting quench and sudden temperature jumps at multiple locations on the cavity.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPCAV003  
About • Received ※ 09 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 12 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 31 August 2021  
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SUPCAV013 Multipacting Analysis of the Quadripolar Resonator (QPR) at HZB electron, simulation, quadrupole, operation 42
  • S. Bira, D. Longuevergne
    Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS/IN2P3, IJCLab, Orsay, France
  • Y. Kalboussi
    CEA-IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • S. Keckert, J. Knobloch, O. Kugeler
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  • Th. Proslier
    CEA-DRF-IRFU, France
  Multipacting (MP) is a resonating electron discharge, often plaguing radio-frequency (RF) structures, produced by the synchronization of emitted electrons with the RF fields and the electron multiplication at the impact point with the surface structure. The electron multiplication can take place only if the secondary emission yield (SEY, i.e. the number of electrons emitted due to the impact of one incoming electron), , is higher than 1. The SEY value depends strongly on the material and the surface contamination. Multipacting simulations are crucial in high-frenquency (HF) vacuum structures to localize and potentially improve the geometry. In this work, multipacting simulations were carried out on the geometry of the Quadrupole Resonator (QPR) in operation at HZB using the Spark 3D module in Microwave Studio suite (CST). These simulations helped to understand a particular behavior observed during the QPR tests, and furthermore made it possible to suggest enhancement ways in order to limit this phenomenon and facilitate its operation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-SUPCAV013  
About • Received ※ 09 July 2021 — Revised ※ 09 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 09 April 2022 — Issue date ※ 07 May 2022
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MOPCAV013 LCLS-II-HE Vertical Acceptance Testing Plans cavity, cryomodule, HOM, accelerating-gradient 291
  • J.T. Maniscalco, S. Aderhold, J.D. Fuerst, D. Gonnella
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • T.T. Arkan, M. Checchin, J.A. Kaluzny, S. Posen
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • J. Hogan, A.D. Palczewski, C.E. Reece, K.M. Wilson
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  LCLS-II-HE has performance requirements similar to but generally more demanding than those of LCLS-II, with an operating gradient of 21 MV/m (up from 16 MV/m in LCLS-II) and tighter restrictions on field emission and multipacting. In this paper, we outline the requirements for the 1.3 GHz cavities and the plans for qualification of these cavities by vertical test. We discuss lessons learned from LCLS-II and highlight the changes implemented in the vertical test procedure for the new project.  
poster icon Poster MOPCAV013 [0.418 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-MOPCAV013  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 12 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 02 May 2022
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TUPFDV006 Dynamics of One-Side Multipactor on Dielectrics electron, simulation, space-charge, resonance 411
  • G.V. Romanov
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  Breakdown of dielectric RF windows is an important issue for particle accelerators and high-power RF sources. One of the generally considered reasons for the RF windows failure is the multipactor effect on dielectric surface. The multipactor may be responsible for excessive heating of dielectric and discharge of charges that accumulated in ceramic due to secondary emission. In this study the comprehensive self-consistent PIC simulations with space charge effect were performed in order to better understand the dynamic of one-side multipactor development and floating potential on dielectric induced by the emission. The important correlations between the multipactor parameters at saturation and the secondary emission properties of dielectric and the applied RF field parameters were found and are reported in the paper.  
poster icon Poster TUPFDV006 [0.849 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPFDV006  
About • Received ※ 17 June 2021 — Revised ※ 12 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 06 October 2021
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TUPCAV002 HOM Excitation in Spoke Resonator for SRF Studies cavity, HOM, coupling, simulation 435
  • D. Longuevergne, N. Bippus, F. Chatelet, V. Delpech, N. Hu, C. Joly, T. Pépin-Donat, F. Rabehasy, L. Renard
    Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS/IN2P3, IJCLab, Orsay, France
  • M. Baudrier
    CEA-DRF-IRFU, France
  • E. Cenni, L. Maurice
    CEA-IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  The excitation of Higher Order Modes (HOM) or Lower Order Modes (LOM) has been performed for years on multi-cell superconducting accelerating cavities as a mean to coarsely locate a quench, a defective area or ignite a plasma for surface cleaning. Moreover, such multi-mode testing is very useful to understand more accurately the frequency dependence of the surface resistance in a wide range of surface magnetic fields (0<B<150mT). In that sense, several type of dedicated non-accelerating resonators like Quadrupole Resonator (QPR), Half- or Quarter- Wave resonators have been built to specifically study new superconducting materials or new surface or heat treatments. What is proposed in this paper is to perform such multi-mode analysis (352 MHz, 720 MHz and 1300 MHz) in an existing accelerating cavity, in particular a Spoke Resonator. Baseline results will be presented and perspectives of such technique will be discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPCAV002  
About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Revised ※ 19 July 2021 — Accepted ※ 23 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 15 April 2022
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TUPCAV014 Design of a Third Harmonic Cavity With Low R/Q for the ESR in BNL EIC cavity, HOM, simulation, electron 469
  • B.P. Xiao
    BNL, Upton, New York, USA
  Funding: The work is supported by by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the US DOE.
For the electron Storage Ring (ESR) of Brookhaven National Lab Electron Ion Collider (BNL EIC), beam loading is a great concern due to the high beam current together with abortion gap, especially for harmonic cavities due to higher operational frequency. There were attempts to use feedback/feedforward control, using multiple cavities with counter-phasing. A straightforward way to lower beam loading effect is to design a cavity with low R/Q. In this paper, we show such a design for the 3rd harmonic cavity for BNL EIC ESR.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPCAV014  
About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Revised ※ 12 November 2021 — Accepted ※ 11 February 2022 — Issue date ※ 22 February 2022
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TUPCAV015 Performance of a Low Frequency QWR-Based SRF Gun cavity, electron, simulation, experiment 472
  • G. Chen, M.V. Fisher, M. Kedzie, M.P. Kelly, T.B. Petersen, T. Reid
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  • X. Lu, P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) electron guns are generally considered to be an effective way of producing beams with high brightness and high repetition rates (or continuous wave). In this work, the 199.6 MHz quarter wave resonator (QWR)-based Wisconsin Free Electron Laser (WiFEL) superconducting electron gun was recently refurbished and tested at Argonne (ANL). The field performance of the e-gun was fully characterized. During this time, multipacting (MP) conditioning was performed for over 20 hours to overcome the hard MP barrier observed in the accelerating voltage range of 8 to 40 kV; the presence of multipacting is expected to operationally important for future e-guns. Here we simulated and studied the effect using CST* Microwave Studio and Particle Studio and compare with the measured data.
* CST Studio Suite, version 2020,
poster icon Poster TUPCAV015 [4.874 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPCAV015  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 20 December 2021 — Accepted ※ 22 February 2022 — Issue date ※ 23 March 2022
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TUPTEV017 Processing and Test Result of 650 MHz 50 kW CW Prototype Couplers for PIP-II Project vacuum, GUI, cavity, cryomodule 526
  • N. Solyak, B.M. Hanna, S. Kazakov
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  For PIP-II project Fermilab is developing 650 MHz couplers to deliver up to 50 kW CW RF power to the superconducting low-beta (LB650) and high-beta (HB650) cavities. To meet project requirements two different designs of the couplers were proposed, one is conventional design with copper plated stainless steel walls. In second design (EM-shielded) a copper screen is used to shield stainless steel wall from electromagnetic field. For prototyping we built two couplers of each type and tested them at 50kW with full reflection at different reflection phases. In each test the assembly of two couplers were processed with DC bias up to +5 kV, starting with short pulses and ramping power up to 100 kW. Final run for 2 hours in CW mode at 50 kW to reach equilibrium temperature regime and qualify couplers. One pair of couplers was also processed without DC bias. Finally, all four couplers demonstrated full requirements and were qualified. Based on test results the conventional coupler with some modification was chosen as a baseline design. Modified version of coupler is now ordered for prototype of HB650 cryomodule. In paper we will discuss details of coupler processing and results  
poster icon Poster TUPTEV017 [2.211 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-TUPTEV017  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 06 August 2021 — Accepted ※ 19 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 08 December 2021
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WEPFAV005 Design Optimization of the 166-MHz and 500-MHz Fundamental Power Couplers for Superconducting RF Cavities at High Energy Photon Source cavity, simulation, cryogenics, photon 544
  • T.M. Huang, Z.Z. Chang, L. Guo, H.Y. Lin, Q. Ma, W.M. Pan, P. Zhang, X.Y. Zhang
    IHEP, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
  Funding: Supported in part by High Energy Photon Source, a major national science and technology infrastructure in China, and in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 12075263.
Five 166-MHz quarter-wave ß=1 cavities have been chosen for the fundamental srf system while two 500-MHz single-cell elliptical cavities for the third-harmonic system for High Energy Photon Source (HEPS). Each cavity will be equipped with one fundamental power coupler (FPC) capable of delivering 250-kW continuous-wave rf power. For the 166-MHz FPC, two prototypes were developed and excellent performances were demonstrated in the high-power operations. However, the inner air part was observed to be warmer than predictions. Therefore, an innovative cooling scheme was adopted. In addition, the Nb extension tube has been elongated to solve the overheating in the cavity-coupler interface region. Concerning the 500-MHz FPC, several improvements were proposed. First, a doorknob adopting WR1800 instead of WR1500 waveguide was chosen to better match the operating frequency; Second, the window position was optimized to ensure multipacting-free on the window; Third, the cryogenic heat load was estimated carefully to obtain an optimum helium gas cooling. The main parameters and the design optimizations of the 166-MHz and 500-MHz FPCs are presented in this paper.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPFAV005  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2021 — Issue date ※ 20 January 2022  
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WEPCAV009 Conceptual Design of Balloon Double Spoke Resonator cavity, electron, accelerating-gradient, linac 604
  • Z.Y. Yao, R.E. Laxdal
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
  Funding: TRIUMF receives funding via a contribution through the National Research Council Canada.
The balloon variant of the spoke resonator was proposed to eliminate the intensive multipacting (MP) barriers around the operating field level by modifying the local electro-magnetic (EM) fields. TRIUMF has previously reported the prototyping of a 325MHz β=0.3 single spoke resonator (SSR) that demonstrated the principle of the balloon concept. To extend the benefits of the balloon variant to multi-spoke resonators, this paper will report a conceptual design of a 325MHz β=0.5 balloon double spoke resonator (DSR). The consequences from the balloon SSR design, such as the relations between EM field distributions and the field levels of the MP barriers, were applied to the DSR design. Other particular geometry features were also added due to the characters of DSRs. The simulated MP barriers were significantly squeezed to the lower field level compared to a conventional DSR design. Simulation results and conceptual design will be reported.
poster icon Poster WEPCAV009 [2.264 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPCAV009  
About • Received ※ 22 June 2021 — Revised ※ 20 December 2021 — Accepted ※ 01 March 2022 — Issue date ※ 18 April 2022
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WEPTEV002 High Power Coupler Devepment for EIC SRF, cavity, detector, simulation 632
  • W. Xu, Z.A. Conway, J.M. Fite, D. Holmes, K.S. Smith, A. Zaltsman
    BNL, Upton, New York, USA
  Funding: This work is supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
The future EIC Electron storage ring at BNL needs to compensate up to 10 MW synchrotron loss with RF systems. The RF system relies on 34 fundamental power couplers to deliver RF power from power sources at room temperature to 17 SRF cavities at 2 K. Each power coupler will operate with 400 kW forward power, with full reflection for ~10% of time. We are developing two 1 MW coaxial FPCs at BNL, one with a BeO window and the other with an Al2O3 window. This paper will briefly summarize test results of high power test on the BeO window FPC , and then describe the development status of the Al2O3 window FPC.
poster icon Poster WEPTEV002 [3.397 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEPTEV002  
About • Received ※ 25 June 2021 — Revised ※ 28 January 2022 — Accepted ※ 05 April 2022 — Issue date ※ 12 May 2022
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WEOCAV04 Optimization of a Traveling Wave SRF Cavity for Upgrading the International Linear Collider cavity, ECR, niobium, GUI 694
  • V.D. Shemelin
    Valery D Shemelin, Freeville, USA
  • H. Padamsee
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • H. Padamsee, V.P. Yakovlev
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  The Standing Wave TESLA Niobium-based structure is limited to a gradient of about 50 MV/m by the critical RF magnetic field. To break through this barrier, we explore the option of Niobium-based traveling wave (TW) structures. Optimization of TW structures was done taking into account experimentally known limiting electric and magnetic fields. It is shown that a TW structure can have an accelerating gradient above 70 MeV/m that is about 1.5 times higher than contemporary standing wave structures with the same critical magnetic field. The other benefit of TW structures shown is R/Q about 2 times higher than TESLA structure that reduces 2 times the dynamic heat load. A method is proposed how to make TW structures multipactor-free. Some design proposals can be realized to facilitate fabrication. Further increase of the real-estate gradient (equivalent to 80 MV/m active gradient) is also possible by increasing the length of the accelerating structure because of higher group velocity and cell-to-cell coupling. Realization of this work opens paths to ILC energy upgrades beyond 1 TeV to 3 TeV in competition with CLIC. The paper will discuss corresponding opportunities and challenges.  
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DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-WEOCAV04  
About • Received ※ 15 June 2021 — Accepted ※ 24 October 2021 — Issue date ※ 16 May 2022  
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THPFDV008 Research on Ceramic for RF Window electron, cavity, Windows, klystron 771
  • Y. Yamamoto, K. Nakamura, H. Yoshizumi
    Kyocera Corporation, Corporate Fine Ceramics Group, Kyoto, Japan
  • S. Michizono, Y. Yamamoto
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  Kyocera and KEK had started joint research on developing materials that satisfy the required characteristics as RF window materials. In previous studies, AO479B was developed, and it has been applied to some products. However, AO479B has size limitation in applying to products. Recently, large RF windows is demanded. Therefore, we have developed a new material AO479U which is designed to be applied to products regardless of the product size. In this report, the characteristics of AO479U was evaluated by comparing it with other materials, including the presence or absence of TiN coating. In order to clarify how the differences of materials or manufacturing processes contributes to heat generation and multipactor discharge occurring in RF windows, we measured important characteristics as RF window materials (relative permittivity, dielectric loss tangent, surface resistance, volume resistivity, secondary electron emission coefficient, and TiN thickness), and investigated the relationships of them and materials or manufacturing processes.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-THPFDV008  
About • Received ※ 18 June 2021 — Revised ※ 06 December 2021 — Accepted ※ 28 February 2022 — Issue date ※ 01 May 2022
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THPCAV009 Statistical Modeling of Peak Accelerating Gradients in LCLS-II and LCLS-II-HE cavity, cryomodule, simulation, accelerating-gradient 804
  • J.T. Maniscalco, S. Aderhold, J.D. Fuerst, D. Gonnella
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • T.T. Arkan, M. Checchin, J.A. Kaluzny, S. Posen
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • J. Hogan, A.D. Palczewski, C.E. Reece, K.M. Wilson
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  In this report, we study the vertical test gradient performance and the gradient degradation between vertical test and cryomodule test for the 1.3 GHz LCLS-II cavities. We develop a model of peak gradient statistics, and use our understanding of the LCLS-II results and the changes implemented for LCLS-II-HE to estimate the expected gradient statistics for the new machine. Finally, we lay out a plan to ensure that the LCLS-II-HE cryomodule gradient specifications are met while minimizing cavity disqualification by introducing a variable acceptance threshold for the accelerating gradient.  
poster icon Poster THPCAV009 [1.311 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-THPCAV009  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 14 September 2021 — Accepted ※ 02 November 2021 — Issue date ※ 23 November 2021
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THPCAV012 ESS Medium Beta Cavities at INFN LASA cavity, linac, SRF, operation 815
  • D. Sertore, M. Bertucci, M. Bonezzi, A. Bosotti, D. Cardelli, A. D’Ambros, A.T. Grimaldi, L. Monaco, R. Paparella, G.M. Zaggia
    INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI), Italy
  • C. Pagani
    Università degli Studi di Milano & INFN, Segrate, Italy
  INFN Milano - LASA contributes in-kind to the ESS ERIC Superconducting Linac supplying 36 cavities for the Medium Beta section of the proton accelerator. All the cavities have been mechanical fabricated, BCP treated and, for most of them, also qualified with vertical test at cold at DESY. We present the result of the cavities already qualified and delivered to CEA, discussing the lessons learnt so far. For remaining cavities, we discuss the actions taken and the plans foreseen to recover them to full specifications.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-SRF2021-THPCAV012  
About • Received ※ 21 June 2021 — Revised ※ 01 September 2021 — Accepted ※ 10 October 2021 — Issue date ※ 23 November 2021
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